Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Social Studies Curriculum Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Social Studies Curriculum - Research Paper Example h the obligation of guaranteeing that the educational plan stresses on the significance of having understudies who are focused on the thoughts and estimations of majority rule government (Ross, 2006). Because of this, a student ought to have an away from of citizenship, a comprehension of chronicled improvement and contemporary types of intensity authority and administration. Students should be acquainted with the reasons and elements of the administration; they should have clearness on the contrasts among popularity based and non-majority rule political frameworks. Hence the educational program designers ought to incorporate subjects that dazzle the learner’s enthusiasm for open issues and along these lines reinforce skills of self administration through resident investment encounters (Ross, 2006). This educational plan ought to urge students to be increasingly keen on open issues and furthermore community undertakings thus making them to be more dynamic individuals from the general public as opposed to being aloof. An understudy ought to be confronted with the test of learning points of view about nearby, national and global issues in regards to governmental issues (Ross, 2006). In this manner the educational program designers should think of an educational plan that will evaluate the student too become a dependable resident with the information on the administration, law and legislative issues so as to settle on choices about the significant activities on governmental issues (Ross,

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Consent Decree and its change of Floridas Education System.

The Consent Decree and its difference in Floridas Education System. Before the formation of the Florida Consent Decree there were numerous different laws that were made to secure understudies just as minorities. A couple incorporate Equal Education Opportunity Act and Title VI of the government Civil Rights Act of 1964. The Equal Education Opportunity Act was created in 1974 and was made to deny biased lead, for example, isolating understudies dependent on their race and shading. This demonstration additionally ensured victimization workforce and staff individuals. The Equal Education Opportunity Act additionally expected regions to make a move in beating language hindrances that understudies confronted that frequently caused issues with equivalent support inside instruction programs. One of the most significant acts in US history just as training history is that of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The demonstration's Title VI professes to training. The demonstration forestalls rudimentary and auxiliary schools just as universities from segregating anyb ody dependent on race, shading, sex, religion or national origin.Civil Rights Act of 1964The FloridaThe Florida Consent Decree was made so as to all the more likely serve the consistently changing understudy populace in the state funded schools of Florida. The declaration came to fruition after the State of Florida was sued by minority gatherings. These gatherings felt that their youngsters were not getting the reasonable treatment they merited with the laws of the Equal Education Opportunity Act, Title VI of the government Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Florida Educational Equity Act, and other bureaucratic and state laws. The pronouncement was created so as to have commanded principles and rules all through the state's school regions to offer types of assistance for Limited English Proficiency (LEP) students.There are six fundamental issues that the Consent Decree covers. These six principle issues are Identification and Assessment, Equal Access to Appropriate Programming, Equal Ac cess to Appropriate Categorical and different projects...

Monday, August 17, 2020

Steps to Strategy Formulation (Read Only If You Want To Outcompete Competitors)

Steps to Strategy Formulation (Read Only If You Want To Outcompete Competitors) The most successful endeavors started with well-made plans. The biggest businesses grew with the aid of well-developed strategies. In fact, if you take a look at businesses, every decision made, every action taken, and every resource allocated and spent, had logic behind them. This logic or basis is a strategy.However, strategies aren’t pulled out of thin air, and they are not readily served to entrepreneurs and managers on a silver platter. A lot of thought and effort go into the creation of plans â€" whether they are simple or elaborate â€" and the formulation of the strategies and specific steps within these plans.We often hear the phrase “strategic planning” bandied about, and you’ve probably even learned about it extensively in your business classes or similar courses you’ve taken in the past. And then, out of nowhere, you hear “strategy formulation”, and this brings a whole new set of questions in your head. Is it a new concept? Do you have to take a separate cour se to learn about it, especially on how you can apply it to your business? © | imtmphotoHere’s the good news: you don’t have to. That is because “strategy formulation” is simply another way to refer to strategic planning.THE FUNDAMENTALS OF STRATEGY FORMULATIONStrategic Management is a very broad discipline, its scope spanning the entire strategic decision-making structure of the organization, from the management processes and decisions to the activities performed in all its functional units. The primary focus of this discipline is the conduct of the strategic management process, which pretty much covers all the activities and functions performed to enable the organization to cope well with change over the long term.The systematic nature of the strategic management process is apparent in how it was split into three stages: Strategy Formulation, Strategy Implementation, and Strategy Evaluation and Control.In this discussion, we will take an in-depth look at the first stage â€" Strategy Formulation â€" and the six steps that you shou ld follow in order to come up with management strategies that will propel your organization forward, far ahead of your competitors and rivals.Strategy formulation is the process of determining and establishing the goals, mission and objectives of an organization, and identifying the appropriate and best courses or plans of action among all available alternative strategies to achieve them.Always, there is an end in sight, and that is the organizational goals of the firm. The organization anticipates specific results, which they can only achieve by following a specific route, or acting within the confines or parameters of a specific framework. That route or framework will be created through strategy formulation.The main reason that the strategy formulation is also referred to at times as “strategic planning” is because they basically follow the same concept. Through strategic planning, management is able to evaluate its resources and determine the best ways to maximize the company ’s return on investment (ROI). The output â€" the strategic plan â€" will serve as the framework or guide for the members of the organization in carrying out their respective roles.Therefore, it is important to note that, although the two phrases are sometimes used interchangeably, and although they are similar in a lot of ways, they are not exactly the same.Aspects of Strategy FormulationStrategy formulation has three levels or aspects, with the resulting recommendations in each level being consistent in order to ensure the formulation of strategies that are cohesive, realistic and viable.Corporate Level StrategyIn this level, the perspective is broad and wide, so the focus is on the overall scope, direction and goals of the entire organization. Since we are looking at the big picture, our concern is the total structure of the business.This aspect of strategy formulation has the following components:Growth strategy: This component is concerned with the direction that the business is taking. What are the organization’s growth objectives? How is its overall performance, and does it coincide with what the business had in mind when it developed its growth objectives? Are the growth strategies still consistent with the growth objectives and, if not, what changes or modifications must be made?Portfolio strategy: This aspect is all about taking stock of the organization’s operational structure. What are the lines of business in the organization’s portfolio? How are these lines interconnected or how do they fit together? The most common strategies developed at this level address queries on whether a business should diversify its portfolio or keep them as they are, and focusing on their concentrations or weights instead.Parenting strategy: The main point of concern here is the allocation of resources and capabilities across the lines of business of the organization. How will the items in the portfolio be managed? Which lines require more direct management and control? Which lines are in need of additional resources to boost their performance?Business Level StrategyLarge companies usually have multiple lines of business in their portfolio. The larger firms even distinguish them as separate strategic business units (SBUs) under a single organizational umbrella. As strategic business units, they are operational as stand-alone businesses, which means that competition is bound to arise.In this level, strategy formulation is geared towards coming up with competitive strategies between and among the lines of businesses or SBUs of the organization.Functional Level StrategyCompared to the other two levels, the functional level has a shorter outlook. Within each line of business or SBU, there are functional units with their own specific tasks and sets of activities. Strategies at this level are required, primarily addressing how these activities and tasks will be carried out effectively and efficiently. STEPS FOR AN EFFECTIVE AND WINNING STRATEGY FORMULATIONSo you want your business to earn more than a decent amount of profit. You want your business to grow and be a force to reckon with in the industry. Naturally, you also want to be ahead of the competition, beating them soundly and putting as much distance as you can between you.First, you have to come up with winning strategies, which you will then implement to come out on top. Your strategy formulation should roughly follow these steps:1. Define the organization and its environmentThe first step requires you to take a look at the organization. The points of interest are:Target market â€" This is the domain that the business hopes to dominate, so there is a need for the organization to clearly identify and define the particular group that it will target. Demographic and psychographic factors are the primary indicators considered in defining the organization’s target market.Customers â€" They are the end users of the products and services that the company offers. Who are they? How do they perceive value? Are you able to meet that perception? How do they make their purchasing decisions? Why do they purchase your products or services?Offerings â€" These are the products or services that you are selling to the customers. Do they offer value to the customers, and does that value meet their perceived value? How does the price point affect its value, if at all? What are the end benefits that these products and services have that convince customers to buy them?Adaptation to changes and challenges â€" Business environments are, at best, unstable in the sense that changes are expected and even anticipated. Anticipation will spur the company to come up with strategies to be able to adapt quickly and effectively. Therefore, the organization has to identify the potential challenges that are expected to arise. The most common examples are the introduction of new technologies and equipment, and updates in systems.2. Define the strategic missionOrganizations are forward-looking, and they want to achieve something as they move the business along. The strategic mission will provide a clear picture of that long-range outlook, providing an overview of what the business wants to achieve. This will serve as a definitive and clear guide for the organization and its members as they carry out the tasks indicated in the plan.A strong strategic mission should have all, if not most, of the following:An indication of a long-range perspective. The business is looking at the long term, not just one, three or five years down the road. It has to be clear on that front.Core values of the organization. The mission must include the values that are upheld and highly esteemed by the organization. These values will largely dictate how you are going to go about the process of achieving the goals of the organization.Nature of the business. Briefly, include a description of the core activities or main line of business of the organization. Is it in commercial retail, healthcare services, or automobile manufacturing?Current position of the organization in the market. Is the organization currently holding the leader position in the market? Are there special characteristics or features that clearly distinguish the organization from the rest? These should also be noted in the strategic mission.Vision of the organization. This is a statement of what and where the organization wants to be in the future, on its own and in the market.Here are some tips that may help you when crafting your Strategic Mission statement.Start by taking a look at the main operations and offerings of the business and how they go about them. Consider also the end users or recipients of the output of these operations.Focus on the “what is”, not the “what should be”. That means you have to be objective in looking at the current state of affairs in the organization and the industry it belongs to.Present your drafts to other members of the information for critiquing. You may be able to get more pointers from their feedback, since they are likely to be more objective when evaluating the mission statement.Get pointers from other companies. In fact, it would be a great idea to take a look at the mission statements of your competitors, considering how you are pretty much in the same position and, probably, with a similar vision. Be careful, however, that you won’t be copying their mission statements outright.You might end up making dozens of draft mission statements and scrapping all of them. That is fine. Keep revising and improving until you have a draft of a mission statement that you are fully satisfied with, and that captures and reflects the organizations long-range perspective perfectly.Take a look at the following example of a well-written strategic mission of New Leaf Paper, manufacturer and distributor of printing and office papers using environment-friendly virgin-fiber products. It is one of the largest and leading paper companies in the U nited States today.“The mission of New Leaf Paper is to be the leading national source for environmentally responsible, economically sound paper. We supply paper with the greatest environmental benefit while meeting the business needs of our customers. Our goal is to inspire â€" through our success â€" a fundamental shift toward sustainability in the paper industry.”3. Define and set the strategic objectivesStrategic objectives represent what the organization must achieve in order for it to become competitive â€" or to remain competitive â€" and ensure sustainability of the business over the long term. They come in the form of specific responses or aims of the organization to address issues regarding competitiveness, long-term sustainability and other business advantages.If the strategic mission will serve as a directional guide for where the business wants to be, the strategic objectives will serve as a directional guide on how the business will make use of its resources and ca rry out key functions and activities.In essence, defining the strategic objectives involves identifying performance targets that the members of the organization will aim for, and these targets are clearly geared towards the attainment of the goals.When setting strategic objectives, keep the following in mind:They should be specific and easy to understand by everyone, especially the members of the organization.They should be aligned with the strategic mission of the organization.They should be communicated to all employees and other members of the organization, and every effort must be made to ensure that they fully understand the objectives, as well as their individual and collective roles in achieving these targets.A strategic objective may be something as specific as “to increase annual growth sales rate by 15%”. Or it could be something like how New Leaf Paper set out to develop a new market for environmentally sustainable papers, and pioneer that market by introducing innova tive environmental paper products. It is in keeping with how their mission statement referred to the organization’s environmental and sustainability thrusts, as well as that reference to inspiring and stimulating a shift in the paper industry. 4. Define the competitive strategyThe next step in strategy formulation is where the organization will start identifying and coming up with its long-term plan to gain advantage â€" and maintain it â€" over the competition. This is known as the competitive advantage, and the plan is referred to as the competitive strategy.There are three factors at play when determining the Competitive Strategy of the organization.The industry that the organization belongs toThis involves taking a look at the industry or the marketplace and its various aspects.Market size: Logic would dictate that the overall competitive strategy of a business in the South American hotel industry will have differences with that of a firm in the larger European hotel industry. The size of the market comes with several implications. For example, larger markets generally have more players, which means more competitors. It also often means higher amounts of investment and resource allocations by the company since they have a larger area to cover. These, and other factors, are sure to influence an organization’s competitive strategy.Market growth trends: This requires looking into past market growth, how the market is currently moving along, and any potential growth in the future. Many industrial and market analysts conduct these types of studies from time to time, providing businesses with their inputs and thoughts on the future of the market, which these businesses will then use in its strategic management processes.Competition: A particular point of interest is competitive profitability. How are the competing firms in the market doing in terms of profit-earning? Are their huge disparities in their profit levels? Is the average actual profitability of th e firms lower or higher than the expected industry average?Movements in and out of the market: You also have to consider the number of new market entries, withdrawals from the market, and a comparison of the two. A market with too many new entrants can mean a lot of things. It is possible that new players are coming in because they think there is still room for them. Some may also deem the existing firms in the market as weak competition, which is why they are coming in.Threats to the industry: Some industries are prone to more threats than others, and this is bound to affect the formulation of strategies. Aside from getting a feel for the level of vulnerability of the industry to threats, the potential threats should also be clearly identified.The competitive position of the organizationThis time, the focus is on the competition. Know who your competitors are and understand how they work. In aid of defining a competitive strategy, you should:Gain an understanding of the operations of competitors, such as their products and services, their marketing campaigns, and their customer bases.Analyze how the competitors are able to deliver value to their customers through their product offerings.Identify the strengths and weaknesses of competitors, and analyze how they are opportunities and threats to the organization.The strengths and weaknesses of the organizationThe organization also has to look internally and look into itself. In particular, it has to identify its strengths and acknowledge its weaknesses. By doing so, defining a competitive strategy will be easier.Again, specificity is important when coming up with competitive strategies. Let us take a look at some competitive strategy examples:Produce at low cost and sell at a low price, but at high volumePursue a market niche strategyIn New Leaf Paper’s case, its competitive strategy involved “serving the market through leading product innovation, while ensuring that each product line and business relationsh ip is deeply entrenched with New Leaf Paper’s environmental and social values.”(Technically, this is where Strategy Formulation ends, and we move on to the next stage in the Strategic Management Process. However, in order to further emphasize the crucial role played by Strategy Formulation, let us continue on to the succeeding steps in the process.On the other hand, considering how strategy formulation is also done throughout the strategic management process, it won’t be entirely wrong to say that the next two steps may also fall under Strategy Formulation. After all, management may discover new information or circumstances that will result to formulation of new and improved strategies.)5. Implementation of strategiesOrganizations may have come up with very good strategies, but they will be completely wasted and will benefit no one unless they are implemented.Identify the tactics or methods that will be used in the implementation of the chosen strategies. As the implementation moves forward, management may spot some methods or tactics that are not working, or they may realize that another tactic may work better. In that case, the corresponding adjustments may be made.At this point, it is possible that the company was able to come up with several strategies. However, as much as they’d want to implement all these strategies, that is not just possible. Review of the strategies will help the strategic management team to prioritize the strategies and identify which ones to implement.This time, let us take a look at some tactics, methods or steps undertaken by New Leaf Paper. Keep in mind that the competitive strategy is to introduce product innovations and putting emphasis on environment and social values.Development of innovative products. New Leaf Product was the first to develop, manufacture, and sell innovative and ground-breaking paper products, and some of the most notable ones are:“New Leaf Reincarnation, the first 100% recycled coated paper (1998) “New Leaf Ecobook 100”, the first trade book paper, made with post-consumer waste (PCW) content and PCF (2001)“New Leaf Opaque 100”, the first white opaque paper made with 100 PCW and PCF (2003)“New Leaf Primavera”, the first high-end gloss coated paper with 40% PCW and PCF (2004)“New Leaf Sakura”, the first silk-coated paper in the US (2006)Certification as a Certified B corporation. New Leaf Paper is one of the first 81 companies named as a Certified B Corporation, known for using “the power of business to solve social and environmental problems”.Obtaining environmental certifications. In 1999, New Leaf Paper produced the “New Leaf Ecomatte”, which was the first coated paper to be granted a certification by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Other environmental certifications earned were from Biogas Energy, Green-e Certified Renewable Energy, and Ancient Forest Friendly.Tie-ups with major companies and undertakings, one of the most notable ones being whe n “New Leaf Paper Ecobook 100” was used to print 950,000 copies of J.K. Rowling’s “Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix” in 2003.Leveraging partnerships. New Leaf Paper partnered with Bank of America and developed the “New Leaf Everest”, the first bright white letterhead paper in the world, made with 100 PCW and PCF.6. Evaluate progress and effectivenessIt is important to track the progress of the implementation of the strategies. Are they being properly implemented? Are they being measured properly? Are the safeguards to ensure reliability of the results in place?On top of that, the effectiveness of the strategy implemented should also be assessed. Is the strategy working? Does it have the potential to bring the company closer to the fulfillment of its goals, as laid out in the Mission Statement?When we look at the example of New Leaf Paper, its strategies resulted in other paper companies launching their own lines of environmentally responsible paper products th at are very similar with New Leaf products. For example, the success of “New Leaf Everest” spurred five competing paper companies to launch their own brands. Clearly, this is an indication that the company is making strides in its vision of inspiring â€" through their success â€" that fundamental shift toward sustainability in the paper industry.Feedback plays a very important role in the evaluation stage, providing the strategists with insights on how the implemented strategies are faring.It takes a lot of smarts, determination and hard work to make a business succeed, beat the competitors, and have the upper hand in the competitive arena within the marketplace. A great part of this rides on the strategies and how they are implemented, but never forget that it all starts with the strategy. In order to have an effective strategy, make sure that they are in line with the overall organizational goals.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Essay James Joyce and Catholicism in Portrait and Dubliners

Joyces Juxtaposition of Catholicism and Aesthetics James Joyce was a prolific Irish writer who wrote about Ireland and the troubles the people of Ireland faced. According to the Volume Library Encyclopedia, with Ireland being about 94 % Roman Catholic, religion is a motif brought forth prominently in Joyces works. In Dubliners, his book of short stories as well as his supposed autobiography, Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Joyce shows religious turmoil and indecision through his characters. Stephen Dedalus, the main character in the journal-like story of Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, goes through an internal turmoil of his own throughout the entire book on how he would view religion. He shows certain extremities of†¦show more content†¦On this retreat he hears sermons about sin, hell, and guilt among other things. Through hearing Father Arnalls sermon about hell he is scared and horrified recognizing hell as his imminent destiny. He takes a nap and has nightmares of creatures waiting for him in a field like in hell. He applied these to himself and began to hate the life he lived. His soul sickened at the thought of a torpid snaky life feeding itself out of the tender marrow of his life and fattening upon the slime of lust(Portrait 151) After a time period of chronic sin and negligence to his faith, Stephen tried fervently to regain his faith through repentance and reconciliation. In his repentance he tells the priest this, His sins trickled from his lips, one by one, trickled in shameful drops from his soul festering and oozing like a sore, a squalid stream of vice. The last sins oozed forth, sluggish, filthy. (Portrait 159). He suddenly viewed life differently and it seemed that his old life of sin was abolished with his religious epiphany on his retreat. He viewed life in a new light. Life became a divine gift for every moment and sensation of which, were it even the sight ofShow MoreRelated James Joyce Essay1100 Words   |  5 Pages In selecting James Joyces Ulysses as the best novel of the twentieth century, Time magazine affirmed Joyces lasting legacy in the realm of English literature. James Joyce (1882-1941), the twentieth century Irish novelist, short story writer and poet is a major literary figure of the twentieth-century. Regarded as quot;the most international of writers in English ¡K[with] a global reputation (Attridge, pix), Joyces stature in literature stems from his experimentation with English prose. InfluencedRead MoreEssay on Ulysses by James Joyce1157 Words   |  5 PagesUlysses by James Joyce Many novelists directly reflect their life stories and personal circumstances in their works, so closely that the works may seem autobiographical. Although there are autobiographical parallels between James Joyces life and that of his characters in Ulysses, the novels scattered autobiographical details are more in the line of delightful puzzles to be ferreted out, rather than direct insights into Joyces life. What is really important in Ulysses is not the ties to

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Beginning Of The Renaissance - 1131 Words

The period of time encompassing the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries (approximately 1450-1600) in Europe has come to be defined as the Renaissance. This was a period of overall enlightening for the human race. Religious reformation occurred within the Roman Catholic Church through Martin Luther’s 95 Theses. The Renaissance was also defining for music. It was within this time period that musical notation was invented along with word painting and polyphony. The Renaissance was the age in which humans finally began to express and explore themselves fully and embody the arts. The title of the Renaissance is meant to reflect the rebirth of human creativity and thought as the guarded ideals of the medieval world fell away. Within the medieval world, the Roman Catholic Church dictated the law of the land and became the singular voice behind everything, including music. It was the Age of Faith. At the second half of the fifteenth century, a new period rose that highlighted the idea of humanism. This was a major opposition to previous belief. The general interest was no longer concerned as much to God’s interest, but rather to the people’s interest. People became concerned with what humans produced and began to examine what the human species actually was. The Age of Faith was over and the Age of Exploration, the Renaissance, was warmly welcomed. â€Å"For over 1,000 years, the official music of the Roman Catholic Church has been Gregorian chant, which consists of melody set to sacredShow MoreRelatedThe Beginning Of Renaissance Art1259 Words   |  6 PagesThe beginning of Renaissance art can be tracked all the way back to Italy in the late 13th and early 14th and 15th centuries. During this Renaissance period, Italian scholars and artists saw themselves as bringing back the ideals and achievements of Roman culture. 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Renaissance era covers the 300 years from 1400 to 1699 and is characterized by a revival of Classical scholarship, wisdom and values. European culture was reborn in the 15th century after a long dormant period in the Middle Ages that extended from the fall of the Roman Empire until the beginning of the 14th century. In addition to the revival of Classical scholarship, the Renaissance period also experienced cultural, scientific andRead MoreThe Renaissance And Its Impact On The European Renaissance1694 Words   |  7 PagesWith the dark ages coming to end and the economy of Europe slowly beginning to rise again, a giant scale cultural revolution like never before was slowly beginning to sweep over Europe. Becoming what we now know as the European Renaissance, every aspect of European life changed because of this revolution. The Renaissance began a renewed interest in the people to seek knowledge and question what the world around them meant. The Renaissance wasn’t just about learning however, it included exploring theRead MoreUnderstanding The Birth Of The Renaissance996 Words   |  4 PagesUnderstanding the birth of The Renaissance is as simple as understanding that the quality of a straight razor shave is superior to that of a commercially stamped multi bladed razor. Looking retroactively at the years leading up to this rebirth one can note the beginning of reflection the Ancient World and the ins-and-outs of Roman culture. Influencing architecture, art, and social construction, a desire for the classics pulled Europe from the slumping years of the fading High Middle Ages. ActivelyRead MoreHistorical And Philosophical Movement Of The Renaissance1596 Words   |  7 PagesThe renaissance became a historical movement that marked the beginning of individualism and modernity through the unification of philosophers, artists, writers, and poets. Although it has no fixed beginning, most theories placed the beginning era in the early 14th century. The renaissance profoundly affected European Intellectual life through the introduction of different perspectives, ideas, innovations, literature, art, science, religion among many other aspects that continue to shape modern philosophyRead MorePositive And Negative Effects Of The Renaissance798 Words   |  4 Pages12/3/2017 Section Three: Essay Renaissance While the renaissance period of history is long over, it dramatically impacted the modern world. Some of the great discoveries in science, developments in the arts, architecture, and humanism took place during this period of history. The results had major impacts on politics at that time as well into the future. The renaissance left both positive and negative influences on the world as we know it. The renaissance is defined as the â€Å"rebirth† ofRead MoreRenaissance : The Renaissance1049 Words   |  5 Pagesreally was left in the dark, until a flicker of hope emerged offering a new beginning: the Renaissance. The Renaissance lasted from the 14th to the 17th century and was an era of â€Å"rebirth† in European history. During this period, culture throughout Europe underwent a dramatic reformation where classic learning and Greco-Roman beliefs were reintroduced. Italian art in particular encountered a major change in which new Renaissance ideas were skillfully demonstrated and incorporated. In artists’ work, humansRead MoreRenaissance Essay920 Words   |  4 PagesThe Renaissance was an era of change in human thought. It was characterized by a new philosophy, which included the rise of humanism, individualism, and secularism. Writers and artists began to focus on the individual man and his potential. The Renaissance movement began in the Italian ci ty-states, especially Florence, and spread northward toward the rest of Europe. The Renaissance was the rebirth of new ideas in all aspects of life such as: science, technology, classical art, and education. Read MoreRenaissance and Political System1193 Words   |  5 PagesRenaissance and Political Institutions Name: Instructor’s Name: Class: Date: Introduction Renaissance is a French term meaning rebirth or revival. Renaissance period in the history of Europe starts from the beginning of 15th century to the end of 16th century. The Renaissance manifested the transitional phase from the medieval ages to the modern era. It was a time of social and cultural changes in Europe. It is believed to be the beginning of the modern world and hence the new phase of the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Brand Equity Free Essays

string(271) " researchers have surfaced with claims to proprietary techniques, but my impression is that, in fact, many of us are doing largely the same thing because, like the automobile or the transistor, timely discoveries tend to get made in more than one place at the same time\." And, of course, by stating the obvious corollary: that you can squander your hard-earned equity by using it to subsidize misconceptions. Several years ago, Bozo;Allen Hamilton* conducted a survey of companies which have had varying degrees of success in new product Introduction, In order to arrive at an understanding of what we called â€Å"best practices† that is, what differentiated the companies which succeeded more often than others in the new products development process. To talk about the results would require more than the time I have here, but I’d Like to begin this discussion by sharing at least one useful point with you. We will write a custom essay sample on Brand Equity or any similar topic only for you Order Now Success in new product introduction is increasingly associated with the expenditures of money earlier in the development process. And, although there are many ways to spend that money, one of the most obvious is on a more deliberate examination of brand -what we might call â€Å"brand testing† as a preface to â€Å"new product testing. † * National Analysts was a division of Bozo;Allen Hamilton for 22 years, until April 1, 1992 when it became an independent business entity. 2 I plan to spend most of the time allotted me today in talking about research techniques that minimize risk in this sort of brand research enterprise. But before I o, I need to Join the swelling ranks of marketing lexicographers who define terms like brand and brand equity. I don’t propose any provocative definitions. When I speak of brand, I am talking here about the set of images and associations linked to a commercial identity which: ; Distinguish it from others ; Create specific consumer expect- The common denominator is, of course, goodwill, but it’s hard to imagine an algorithm that successfully models and values all those aspects of equity in dollar terms, since the relationships are complex and the predictor variables are sometimes crude. Brand valuation per SE is a concept more interesting to those who aim to sell or acquire brands than to those who seek to lever them, so I will generally confine my remarks to the latter by talking about the role of disciplined thinking and research in successful brand extensions. Actions and ; Promote some behavioral orientation (I. E. , to buy or avoid) When I use the term â€Å"brand equity’ one I personally like because it’s very expressive, even though imprecise I am referring to the stored value built up in a advantage. What makes that value hard to quantify, especially before the fact, is that it can be realized in a variety of ways: 1. Brand Resilience: Resistance to ewe competitors in the category 2. New Product Trial: Increased consumer willingness to try new products or line extensions under that name what you might think of as â€Å"referred equity’ 3. Brand Premium: Consumer willing-news to pay a premium for your current product or a new one under that name 4. Channel Leverage: Increased or sustained access to distribution channels I think we need, first, to acknowledge that the process of conversing about brand equity has been, in many cases, a lively exchange of anecdotes among old brand warriors: â€Å"Let me tell you about the time Minute Maid launched orange soda† and How about the time Sunniest stretched to fruit candy extensions? † and so on. And like any process that builds on examples and old yarns, there is always the risk that we will be more canny in our retrospective assessment than in our predictions. We can always find a logic or a set of brand boundaries to explain either success or failure. I contend that if Jell Pudding Pops had failed, a lot of us would have said, muff see, Jell has a room temperature or shelf stable equity, and those folks at General Foods didn’t recognize that. † Now if this seems unduly cynical, I can only say in defense that we need to take mind ourselves continually that a lot of these brand ventures or adventures -can go in more than one way, depending upon how well we execute and market them. Brand heredity’ is important, of course; I’m not arguing that General Foods can necessarily put the name Maxwell ABOUT NATIONAL ANALYSTS National Analysts, Inc. Is a research and consulting organization providing marketing guidance to corporations in a range of industries and product categories. Originally established as an independent entity in 1943, National Analysts was acquired by Bozo;Allen Hamilton Inc. , the international managem ent and technology consulting rim, in 1970. In 1992, National Analysts once again became an independent, privately-owned company with a continuing focus on marketing research and strategic consulting Throughout its long history, National Analysts has addressed a wide range of business problems, earning a reputation for methodological innovation and unusual success in handling challenging and complex assignments. It is distinguished by a unique balance of research and consulting resources, and a professional staff whose methodological skills are complemented by depth of market knowledge and industry experience. House on coffee cake or that Also can come a personal deodorant. But it is possible to fail with a plausible extent-soon (like Welch Grape Jelly Donuts) and to succeed against odds with the wrong name and the right product for instance, the Honda automobile. Like certain did-eases, brand misconceptions are a function of unfortunate â€Å"genes† and some tactical errors in living, and it’s not always clear which set of factors account for the greatest proportion of the variance. I say this because I want to unburden the research community of some of the heavy responsibility they’ve shouldered in this process. We can be good advance scouts, but we can’t sweep all the mines or survey What, then, is a reasonable goal for us as marketers and researchers? Well, our primary goal should be to learn as much as we can about the way consumers view our brand competence and our brand personality or style, and then along with that, what sort of permission consumers will extend to us as we prepare to enter neighboring territories. A number of researchers have surfaced with claims to proprietary techniques, but my impression is that, in fact, many of us are doing largely the same thing because, like the automobile or the transistor, timely discoveries tend to get made in more than one place at the same time. You read "Brand Equity" in category "Papers" The analogy may be forced because, to my knowledge, no truly new research tools have yet been invented in this arena. What we are doing is recombining established techniques in more thoughtful and systematic ways. And that may be the best we can hope for, at least in the near term. One caution I’d raise about the limitations of the discipline is that because no two 3 brands are alike, no rigid formula for researching them will apply. To revive the disease metaphor, a good diagnostician decides what information he needs based on patient presentation and does not necessarily submit each patient to the same battery of tests in the same order. This is one of the things that stands between good market research and the development of a rigidly reliable brand instrument. On the other hand, there are some rules of logic and research progression that should guide our approach Step 1 in the process is typically a qualitative phase designed to help you understand your brand character and the sort of license and boundaries which the character seems to impose. These sessions tend to include a lot of ideation and projection, and, though the approach is not help management to think about its brand in new, sometimes startling ways. Step 2 is quantification of the things we have earned or the hypotheses we have formed in the qualitative phase. The yield from that two-step research process should ultimately be a few selected concepts for testing (following whatever norms or customs you feel comfortable with). I do a disservice to the complexity of the process by referring to only two steps, and I’ll try to remedy that a little later. I should probably also state the obvious point here that careful secondary analysis must be carried out in con-Junction with the research, and that, at any point along the way, it is legitimate to use that analysis as a basis for narrowing the field of intendeds (prod-cuts or categories) which you subject to market research. Let’s talk then about your research goals -what must you attempt to learn about the character of your brand? 4 Brand character tends to involve two different elements brand competence and brand personality and you need to examine both in order to understand the raw material at your disposal. If your brand is Coke or Aquatic circa 1980, I think there’s very little question about what your competence is, or was. On the other hand, if you have what I like to call a â€Å"horizontal† brand, like Heinz, that has already extended laterally in a variety of efferent categories, it may not be easy to get a firm grasp of how consumers define your competence. Is it condiments? Is it barbeques? Is it piquancy? And so on. The more diffuse the brand, the more difficult it can be to identify the common denominator. Unless you have a brand that is literally defined by a single product -what Deed Dauber has referred to as brand prototypically it’s wise to be sure you you have, since it tends to define your opportunities. The other important element of your brand character that needs careful examination is personality or style. A good friend of mine and a master of creative brand hinging, Ron Mogul, likes to describe it as the way your brand â€Å"walks, talks and dresses† and I think that’s a nice way to put it. IBM is sober, serious, responsible, masculine, smart but rigid. Jell is childlike and playful, enthusiastic and fun, but not reckless. It doesn’t matter where these images come from. They can arise from your product design, your technology, your packaging, your sales reps, your ads, your spokesmen, your target audience, your product applications. But they’re as real and as liberating or delimiting as your own personalities. Just as people are generally made uncomfortable when rinds or relatives behave out-abstracter, are consumers made uncomfortable by a brand that behaves in surprising and inconsistent ways. This kind of information has both strategic and tactical implications since it tells you where you can legitimately extend, as well as the style to which your customers have grown accustomed. Brands that enter extension categories with competence but the wrong style may not succeed unless they create a new brand or supporting identity to bridge the image gap. Jell cannot, I submit, do a true gourmet mousse, even though the technical capability is there to support it. Sober, button-down, adult IBM imputing toys unless it took pains to spawn an intermediating brand identity. It’s important to remember that whether we speak of brand competence dimensions or brand style, we are generally not talking only about the kinds of product performance attributes that companies normally think of when they think of brand image tracking for example, â€Å"good-tasting,† â€Å"creamy texture,† etc. One of the big leaps for everyone involved in brand extension is learning to separate the name on the package from the thing inside it long enough, at least, to help you think about what the brand could mean when you put it on another substance entirely. If you were attempting to track the image of Raga Pasta Sauce, for example, you would consider recipe dimensions: Rich Tomato-eye Thick Sweet Properly spiced Has fresh ingredients, etc. If, on the other hand, you wanted to learn more about the character of the Raga brand, you’d probably focus more may not recognize or which they may not truly feel for months or years. Unfortunately, the issue, and the data, both get muddier as the chasm between your present location and your target narrows. Indeed, there comes a point where the only valid answer is â€Å"It depends. † It depends entirely on execution in the new category ND continued vigilance at home base. For all my misgivings about the question, I think we’re obligated to ask it in some way, I. E. : â€Å"Would a line of ‘X’ products by company, less, or have no effect? † And maybe, in time, we will have some reasonably sensitive norms to help us make solid use of the answers. But, if we do ask questions like that, I think we should acknowledge, going in, that this question is only a dim light in a foggy channel, not sensitive radar. In my experience with studies of this kind, one of the overwhelming challenges and this probably applies to all complex market research, by the way is creating ND managing expectations. These studies, when properly done, are expensive, and they are as unsettling as therapy. It’s the point where corporations meet themselves face-to-face, and sometimes there are 9 revelations, pleasant or not. There is also the risk that people will expect a program like this to yield a set of finished product concepts, and I think most of us here know that this sort of process is going to produce only a mission statement, not a blueprint. Earlier today, someone mentioned that his brand research experiences had involved him primarily with management, and that only now was he interacting more closely tit the market research department. That has not been my own experience. On the contrary, I believe that some of these projects flounder or are underfeed precisely because senior management is shielded or disengaged from the process. My final word of counsel, therefore, is that researchers and brand managers do what they can to ensure that the findings bubble up as high in the organization as possible. This process of â€Å"self-discovery,† which brand equity research tends to involve, is one that should command unusually close company. The ultimate brand manager is, after all, the CEO, and it’s that individual how’s ultimately responsible to the shareholders for a misstep under the family name. 8 transcendent attributes that incorporate personality or style as well as broad competence. Authentically Italian A tomato expert Pioneering Fancy Sophisticated Contemporary You’d be asking: Is Raga a brand that wears Jeans or dresses? Is this brand more like Mama Leone or Angelica Huston? By the way, if you look closely you’ll notice that there isn’t always a clear distinction between â€Å"competence† and â€Å"style† and, of course, there needn’t be. What’s important is that we capture the brand’s (confirmedness) area of expertise and the manner n which the brand delivers it. Fred Astaire and Nurture were both great dancers! We try to elicit personality dimensions with projective techniques, and those techniques tend to work quite well, so long as you have a tolerance for poetry and improvisation. Since the sort of work we do in these sessions requires a fair degree of abstraction, we like to screen for people who seem comfortable with projective exercises and all they imply. The pre-gumption is that people with a flair for metaphor and flexible thinking look at products much the way others do -but they approach our market research knowledge and a degree of â€Å"irrationality’ How to cite Brand Equity, Papers Brand Equity Free Essays Why recently ads have used old Hindi songs in place of jingles? SWITCH on the telly and chances are that you will catch an old Hindi number. Now, they could either be from the numerous music channels playing retro numbers or songs running on television commercials . And with so many commercial breaks, one sees more Hindi songs as jingles for TVCs than the original song itself. We will write a custom essay sample on Brand Equity or any similar topic only for you Order Now So from ‘Pehli Tareek’ for Cadbury to ‘Hum jab honge’ for SBI Life to ‘I love you’ for Nestle Kit Kat, the list just goes on and on. It of course warms the cockles of the generation that’s grown up with the songs but it also gets the gen next confused — for some think it’s an original score. So these touched up, remixed hindi numbers — do they make the cut or are they just an easy substitute to creating an original jingle? On the use of a popular number to sell life insurance, Chandramohan Mehra, VP – branding and communication, SBI Life says the idea was to keep the tone consistent with the previous films. â€Å"The essence of romance is stronger when we used an old Hindi song. He explains that there is a cycle that jingles follow: â€Å"It’s basically about cutting through the clutter. The cacophony that is around with remixed sounds is easily cut through when you have an old song. Probably, later on, when this becomes oft-used , someone will come out with an original jingle. † So when an old song is pitted against a jingle, which works better? â€Å"A lot of ol d songs were written to specific situations which sometimes come in handy like in the case of ‘Pehli Tareekh’ for Cadbury Dairy Milk. Riding on the popularity of an old song can be advantageous only as far as getting attention. Thereafter it is solely dependent on how well it gels with the film and the idea† , says Abhijit Avasthi, NCD, Ogilvy. But take the example of TVS Scooty Pep ad that has a score from a Raj Kapoor movie. Given that the Scooty brand is specifically targeted at an audience who might’ve never heard these songs, how do the marketers justify their use of an old song? S Srinivas, head – scooters division, TVS Motors says music was secondary to the plot. â€Å"Here, dialogues wouldn’t work and the song itted perfectly,† he says. So in the case of a scooter, the song may have been secondary, but with an apparel brand like Raymond, the creatives insist use of a well known Hindi number is a natural part of the story and not a jingle . â€Å"The brand is particular about portrayal of very realistic scenarios which people can empathise with thus relating to the brand. So there is no question of making up anything very exaggerated where people sing originally written verse to each other as in films† , says Sangeetha N, president (west) ECD, RK Swamy BBDO — the creative agency that handles Raymond.Agreed that people singing original verse might be a bit far-fetched , but is it more cost effective to use an old number than create a jingle? â€Å"If you have a well established tune, it’s easier to build your brand on it. It’s easier to create resonance . If you have songs like this one, it provides you with a jumpstart and you can maximize your investments† , says Mehra. Srinivas of TVS disagrees. He contends that music or jingles does help build a brand, but popular tunes have a limited shelf life. â€Å"This can’t be your strategy all the time† , he says. Sangeetha of RK Swamy BBDO states that using old Hindi songs costs just as much. â€Å"We have to locate the right song, pay the royalties and do a massive sound touch-up job for modern day airing† , she explains. Thus the jury’s out on whether ads with old numbers help break the clutter or not, but going by the number of commercials using them, they sure are giving retro music a fresh breath of life.SOURCE: http://economictimes. indiatimes. com/features/brand-equity/Why-recently-ads-have-used-old-Hindi-songs-in-place-of-jingles/articleshow/6557078. cms DATE: 15th September 2010. How to cite Brand Equity, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Architectures and System of Governance †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Architectures and System of Governance. Answer: Introduction: The tsunami that had taken place in the year 2004 was a massacre for the entire world. It caused severe damage to the ecosystem, thousands lost their life and many lost their lifestyle. It is one among the natural calamities that has occurred in the history of calamities. The term seismic sea wave means a series of waves in the water bodies of the earth. The tsunami waves did not resemble the normal current waves formed under the sea. They were massive and destructive in nature. The wavelength for Tsunami was relatively longer and did not break at required positions. Thus, creating huge waves that damaged the buildings and structures located near the water bodies. It consisted of series of waves that lasting from minutes to hours. The Indian Ocean Tsunami was one of the destructive calamities that occurred in nature. According to scientists, the tsunami was not tide as they consisted series of waves that were destructive in nature. The discussion will detail the Indian Ocean Tsunami that occurred in the year 2004. It will also discuss about the impacts of Tsunami, how life were damaged, how the nature was damaged. The study will also include the measures that were taken during that time and few recommendations that must be taken to prevent such disasters to happen in future again. The Indian Ocean tsunami had taken place in the year 2004, 26th of December. The epicenter of the disaster was at the west coast of Indonesia. The mega thrust earthquake took place when the Indian plate was hit by the Burma plate. It triggered a series of devastating Tsunami along the coastal areas of the Indian Ocean. The calamity caused two, 80,000 deaths and made 14 countries severely affected by the disaster. As Indonesia was the centre for this disaster, it was affected the most followed by countries like Thailand, India and Srilanka. As per world record, this was the third largest and powerful earthquake. It has a longer duration in comparison to the other earthquakes. It had lasted for 8 to 10 minutes and vibrated the blue planet as much as 0.4 inches. The epidemic had expanded until Alaska. Scientifically the epidemic is named as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. The cause for such a disaster was the displacement of the plates due to an earthquake. The displacement happened as the earthquake lasted for a longer period, greater than 9. It occurred 30kom below the sea level and hence affected the water bodies (Griffin et al.,2013). The earthquake displaced massive water volumes of water that resulted the Tsunami. The tsunami that occurred in the shallow water regions forming large destructive waves that damaged the environment and led to thousands death. according to (Brown et al., 2015) the height of the tsunami had reached 24 meters (80 ft) while coming ashore, at some points they reached 30 meters (100ft). the stretch of the tsunami was from the east to west region. Countries like Bangladesh were not affected much as the quake proceeded slowly towards the north. The Andaman and Nicobar islands had suffered a lot due to this calamity. Indonesia was the first country that was affected. Stretching from the islands of Sumatra to regions of Aceh. The tsunami occurred after 30 minutes of the earthquake. According to (Srivastava Shaw,2015) 250000people died there and 37063 were missing. The damage was not limited to the death and missing people. The incident had left 655000 people homeless and shelter less. The maximum damage took place in the coastal regions as the destruction started from the water bodies. The incident has destroyed the coastline, damaging the habitat and ecosystem of those particular regions. In many regions, the towns and villages were destroyed killing thousands of human, animals. The residue that was left after the attack was few parts of iron roofs, few mosques left in the wetlands, few substantial structures. The Andaman and Nicobar islands was also damaged in this massacre. It caused a severe damage to the islands environment. The Andaman Island was less affected in comparison to the little Andaman and Nicobar Island. They were damaged at a huge scale. In the southern region of Andaman, the attack was extended three times the general attack. The coastlines and the low-lying areas were damaged by flooding. in southern Andaman the attack was a four wave cycle with the fourth cycle to be the most destructive and dangerous in nature. The impact so severe that it threw 4 oil tankers from the seashore. The worst affect was at the Katchall islands where 303 were confirmed dead and 4354 were missing. At Srilanka, the tsunami arrived at the eastern coast and refracted to the southern region. However the country is located far beyond the epicenter and hence they did not fell the shake. The tsunami had hit the coastline of Srilanka after almost 2 hour of the quake. It is considered that tsunami had consisted three main waves with the second wave being the strongest. A train named Sumudra Devi was derailed and overturned by the tsunami (McGilvray Gamburd, 2013). It took almost 1700 lives in the country and listed it as the one of the most destructive disaster in world history. The tsunami had also affected the Southern region of Thailand and caused severe damage to the country. The tsunami occurred to the country when it was facing high tide and thus the effect was increased. At Phuket, the western beaches were affected (Calgaro, Dominey-Howes Lloyd,2014). In India, the tsunami arrived in regions like Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu. The Southernmost region was affected after two hours. The regions of Tamil Nadu were severely damaged and few areas in Andhra Pradesh were also damaged. The villages were destroyed; the residents were swept away from the coastline. The fishing industry was damaged, the population was damaged and the lifestyle was affected very badly in these regions (Patton et al.,2015). Altogether, the massacre had caused severe damage to the countries and the countrymen. The sudden shock had drift many livess and made many homeless. According to (Srivastava Shaw, 2015) 227,898 people lost their life's and many become homeless and without any shelter. The crops, plantations, animals, aquatic life were severely damaged by this incident. The incident not only led to death but also showed its impact for few months even after the incident happened. The victims were left injured; there was no scope for treatments and aids that could be provided to them (Ontowirjo, Paris Mano, 2013). They did not have sufficient food to live neither did they have consumable water. The victims had lost their families and house and were living in government-sheltered regions. The government of other countries and unaffected regions were providing necessary things to them. The other countries had to arrange for their food and necessary requirements for living (Seng, 2013). It took months f or these victims to rebuild their courage and homely situations. It was a restart for them to live on earth, as they environment was completely destroyed by the calamity. Hence, they had to rebuild each thing required in the environment. Other countries and states to come out from this situation and restart their lifestyles supported the victims. Steps taken after the massacre: The tsunami had created a relief effort raising funds from government. The governments of the neighboring countries had sanctioned relief and rehabilitation measures for the victim countries. The World Bank and banks that are supported by the NGOs provided initial supports to the countries. They targeted to provide an urgent relief to the victims and a long term rehabilitation to the countries. They intended to create an environment friendly situation and help the victims to come out of the traumatic situation. The government of India reconstructed the damaged houses, created new habitation in safer zones, provided sustainable lifestyle for the countrymen, restored the ecology, provided better infrastructure and helped the victims with educational needs and psychological trauma. MCF had taken initiative and took the victims to a new area where they were provided with education, living motivations, help groups, protection from further damage. They committed to provide rehabilitation t o the victims and worked for the improvement of the victims. The members meet every month to discuss about the improvement and betterment in their work to help the injured and victim of Tsunami(Hentry et al., 2017). They have fund to provide treatment and ensure the welfare of these innocent lives. The neighboring countries provided food and consumable water to the affected areas by helicopter. The countries were raising funds for the victims and moved 50000 tons of food to the affected areas. They used helicopter and planes to reach the victims. There were groups formed to provide medical help to the victims. The countries like Japan, America, Kuwait provided money whereas the countries like Pakistan and China provided medical teams, rescue teams along with dogs. All the nations from worldwide had helped the countries that were affected by the disaster. It took few months for the countries to recover their trauma and come back to normal lifestyle. The primary cause of this disaster was environmental impact that caused the earth quake with a extended effect of the destructive calamity Tsunami. the incident could have been prevented if the ratio of pollution and damage to nature was limited since the early days (Lvholt et al., 2014). As the people are least concerned about the welfare of society, they do not tend to protect the society. Unfortunately, the humans residing in the society cause the damage to society. The primary reason for the earthquake was the shifting of the plates (Hutchison, 2014). The pates tend to move due to the intense heat of the earth. The heating is natural in nature, however, the rate of heat has been increased b the human activities that has resulted to such an outcome. The primary steps that can be taken to prevent these calamities are: reduction of pollution using methods to save the greenery prevention of deforestation reducing CFC eliminating products reducing pollution emitting machines use technologies that support cooling of the earth use natural resources those are renewable reduce the use of nuclear weapons that increase the heat level The people of earth to reduce such disastrous incidents to happen should follow these measures. Few other measures can be taken to face such calamities: the country can keep a stock of food grains and necessities for such mishaps There can be a special group or help age group in every country who will provide support to nations or states suffering from such incidents The governments can equipments like helicopter, ship and airplanes that will provide support to the countries suffering such problems. The country can have a weather-monitoring group who can at least find approximate chances(Anugrah et al.,2015) for the mishaps to happen and warn the country from such incidents. Thus to conclude it can be said that the primary cause for such a disaster is the earthquake that resulted to this disaster. The reason for such quakes is the heating of the earth. The Earth has heated due to excess use of rays, chemicals and environment hazardous products. However, these are also natural calamities that cannot be stopped by our own choice. Hence, few considerations has to be accepted for such calamities, along with some measures. The measures can be protection of greenery and maintenance of ecology. The use of heating chemicals and agents can be reduced to reduce the heat on Earth. At the same time people should be prepared for such natural calamities happening. They can build their habitats in higher regions to prevent such disasters to damage them at the most. They can use weather monitoring devices to assume the chances of such disasters , they can avoid living near water bodies that can damage the most in case of such disasters. However, these are natural calami ties that occur without any warning and it has to be accepted and overcome by everone. References: Anugrah, B., Meilano, I., Gunawan, E., Efendi, J. (2015). Estimation of postseismic deformation parameters from continuous GPS data in northern Sumatra after the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake.Earthquake Science,28(5-6), 347-352. Brown, B., Yuniati, W., Ahmad, R., Soulsby, I. (2015). Observations of Natural Recruitment and Human Attempts at Mangrove Rehabilitation After Seismic (Tsunami and Earthquake) Events in Simeulue Island and Singkil Lagoon, Aceh, Indonesia. InPost-Tsunami Hazard(pp. 311-327). Springer, Cham. Calgaro, E., Dominey-Howes, D., Lloyd, K. (2014). Application of the Destination Sustainability Framework to explore the drivers of vulnerability and resilience in Thailand following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami.Journal of Sustainable Tourism,22(3), 361-383. Griffin, C., Ellis, D., Beavis, S., Zoleta-Nantes, D. (2013). Coastal resources, livelihoods and the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Aceh, Indonesia.Ocean coastal management,71, 176-186. Hentry, C., Saravanan, S., Chandrasekar, N., Rayar, S. L. (2017). Post-Tsunami Damages Assessment, Relief and Rehabilitation Measures in the Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, South India.Energy and Environment Research,7(1), 48. Hutchison, E. (2014). A global politics of pity? Disaster imagery and the emotional construction of solidarity after the 2004 asian tsunami.International Political Sociology,8(1), 1-19. Lvholt, F., Setiadi, N. J., Birkmann, J., Harbitz, C. B., Bach, C., Fernando, N., ... Nadim, F. (2014). Tsunami risk reductionare we better prepared today than in 2004?.International journal of disaster risk reduction,10, 127-142. Lvholt, F., Setiadi, N. J., Birkmann, J., Harbitz, C. B., Bach, C., Fernando, N., ... Nadim, F. (2014). Tsunami risk reductionare we better prepared today than in 2004?.International journal of disaster risk reduction,10, 127-142. McGilvray, D. B., Gamburd, M. R. (Eds.). (2013).Tsunami recovery in Sri Lanka: Ethnic and regional dimensions. Routledge. Murao, O., Nakazato, H. (2013). Vulnerability functions for buildings based on damage survey data in Sri Lanka after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Ontowirjo, B., Paris, R., Mano, A. (2013). Modeling of coastal erosion and sediment deposition during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Lhok Nga, Sumatra, Indonesia.Natural hazards,65(3), 1967-1979. Patton, J. R., Goldfinger, C., Morey, A. E., Ikehara, K., Romsos, C., Stoner, J., ... Vizcaino, A. (2015). A 6600 year earthquake history in the region of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone earthquake.Geosphere,11(6), 2067-2129. Seng, D. S. C. (2013). Tsunami resilience: multi-level institutional arrangements, architectures and system of governance for disaster risk preparedness in Indonesia.Environmental science policy,29, 57-70. Srivastava, N., Shaw, R. (2015). Institutional and Legal Arrangements and Its Impacts on Urban Issues in Post Indian Ocean Tsunami. InRecovery from the Indian Ocean Tsunami(pp. 17-27). Springer, Tokyo.