Sunday, May 24, 2020

Essay James Joyce and Catholicism in Portrait and Dubliners

Joyces Juxtaposition of Catholicism and Aesthetics James Joyce was a prolific Irish writer who wrote about Ireland and the troubles the people of Ireland faced. According to the Volume Library Encyclopedia, with Ireland being about 94 % Roman Catholic, religion is a motif brought forth prominently in Joyces works. In Dubliners, his book of short stories as well as his supposed autobiography, Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Joyce shows religious turmoil and indecision through his characters. Stephen Dedalus, the main character in the journal-like story of Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, goes through an internal turmoil of his own throughout the entire book on how he would view religion. He shows certain extremities of†¦show more content†¦On this retreat he hears sermons about sin, hell, and guilt among other things. Through hearing Father Arnalls sermon about hell he is scared and horrified recognizing hell as his imminent destiny. He takes a nap and has nightmares of creatures waiting for him in a field like in hell. He applied these to himself and began to hate the life he lived. His soul sickened at the thought of a torpid snaky life feeding itself out of the tender marrow of his life and fattening upon the slime of lust(Portrait 151) After a time period of chronic sin and negligence to his faith, Stephen tried fervently to regain his faith through repentance and reconciliation. In his repentance he tells the priest this, His sins trickled from his lips, one by one, trickled in shameful drops from his soul festering and oozing like a sore, a squalid stream of vice. The last sins oozed forth, sluggish, filthy. (Portrait 159). He suddenly viewed life differently and it seemed that his old life of sin was abolished with his religious epiphany on his retreat. He viewed life in a new light. Life became a divine gift for every moment and sensation of which, were it even the sight ofShow MoreRelated James Joyce Essay1100 Words   |  5 Pages In selecting James Joyces Ulysses as the best novel of the twentieth century, Time magazine affirmed Joyces lasting legacy in the realm of English literature. James Joyce (1882-1941), the twentieth century Irish novelist, short story writer and poet is a major literary figure of the twentieth-century. Regarded as quot;the most international of writers in English ¡K[with] a global reputation (Attridge, pix), Joyces stature in literature stems from his experimentation with English prose. InfluencedRead MoreEssay on Ulysses by James Joyce1157 Words   |  5 PagesUlysses by James Joyce Many novelists directly reflect their life stories and personal circumstances in their works, so closely that the works may seem autobiographical. Although there are autobiographical parallels between James Joyces life and that of his characters in Ulysses, the novels scattered autobiographical details are more in the line of delightful puzzles to be ferreted out, rather than direct insights into Joyces life. What is really important in Ulysses is not the ties to

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Beginning Of The Renaissance - 1131 Words

The period of time encompassing the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries (approximately 1450-1600) in Europe has come to be defined as the Renaissance. This was a period of overall enlightening for the human race. Religious reformation occurred within the Roman Catholic Church through Martin Luther’s 95 Theses. The Renaissance was also defining for music. It was within this time period that musical notation was invented along with word painting and polyphony. The Renaissance was the age in which humans finally began to express and explore themselves fully and embody the arts. The title of the Renaissance is meant to reflect the rebirth of human creativity and thought as the guarded ideals of the medieval world fell away. Within the medieval world, the Roman Catholic Church dictated the law of the land and became the singular voice behind everything, including music. It was the Age of Faith. At the second half of the fifteenth century, a new period rose that highlighted the idea of humanism. This was a major opposition to previous belief. The general interest was no longer concerned as much to God’s interest, but rather to the people’s interest. People became concerned with what humans produced and began to examine what the human species actually was. The Age of Faith was over and the Age of Exploration, the Renaissance, was warmly welcomed. â€Å"For over 1,000 years, the official music of the Roman Catholic Church has been Gregorian chant, which consists of melody set to sacredShow MoreRelatedThe Beginning Of Renaissance Art1259 Words   |  6 PagesThe beginning of Renaissance art can be tracked all the way back to Italy in the late 13th and early 14th and 15th centuries. During this Renaissance period, Italian scholars and artists saw themselves as bringing back the ideals and achievements of Roman culture. Their art tried to capture the experience of the individual and the beauty and mystery of the natural world. The Italian Renaissance was considered a rebirth of old values in art such as literature and philosophy. It was a period for theRead MoreElizabethan Theatre : The Beginning Of The English Renaissance920 Words   |  4 Pagesbegan in the year 1558 and lasted until 1603. During this time, Queen Elizabeth I came to rule over England, and England experienced a period of peace and prosperity in which the arts were able to flourish. This is also known as the beginning of the English Renaissance. In this, the art of theatre became quite significant in the lives of the people and developed immensely during this time due to Queen Elizabeth’s wide acceptance and encouragement of theatrical performances, for she often had actorRead MoreA Grand Chain Of Rebellion First Beginning Of The Renaissance Era2674 Words   |  11 Pagesa grand chain of rebellion first started in the Renaissance era. Renaissance era covers the 300 years from 1400 to 1699 and is characterized by a revival of Classical scholarship, wisdom and values. European culture was reborn in the 15th century after a long dormant period in the Middle Ages that extended from the fall of the Roman Empire until the beginning of the 14th century. In addition to the revival of Classical scholarship, the Renaissance period also experienced cultural, scientific andRead MoreThe Renaissance And Its Impact On The European Renaissance1694 Words   |  7 PagesWith the dark ages coming to end and the economy of Europe slowly beginning to rise again, a giant scale cultural revolution like never before was slowly beginning to sweep over Europe. Becoming what we now know as the European Renaissance, every aspect of European life changed because of this revolution. The Renaissance began a renewed interest in the people to seek knowledge and question what the world around them meant. The Renaissance wasn’t just about learning however, it included exploring theRead MoreUnderstanding The Birth Of The Renaissance996 Words   |  4 PagesUnderstanding the birth of The Renaissance is as simple as understanding that the quality of a straight razor shave is superior to that of a commercially stamped multi bladed razor. Looking retroactively at the years leading up to this rebirth one can note the beginning of reflection the Ancient World and the ins-and-outs of Roman culture. Influencing architecture, art, and social construction, a desire for the classics pulled Europe from the slumping years of the fading High Middle Ages. ActivelyRead MoreHistorical And Philosophical Movement Of The Renaissance1596 Words   |  7 PagesThe renaissance became a historical movement that marked the beginning of individualism and modernity through the unification of philosophers, artists, writers, and poets. Although it has no fixed beginning, most theories placed the beginning era in the early 14th century. The renaissance profoundly affected European Intellectual life through the introduction of different perspectives, ideas, innovations, literature, art, science, religion among many other aspects that continue to shape modern philosophyRead MorePositive And Negative Effects Of The Renaissance798 Words   |  4 Pages12/3/2017 Section Three: Essay Renaissance While the renaissance period of history is long over, it dramatically impacted the modern world. Some of the great discoveries in science, developments in the arts, architecture, and humanism took place during this period of history. The results had major impacts on politics at that time as well into the future. The renaissance left both positive and negative influences on the world as we know it. The renaissance is defined as the â€Å"rebirth† ofRead MoreRenaissance : The Renaissance1049 Words   |  5 Pagesreally was left in the dark, until a flicker of hope emerged offering a new beginning: the Renaissance. The Renaissance lasted from the 14th to the 17th century and was an era of â€Å"rebirth† in European history. During this period, culture throughout Europe underwent a dramatic reformation where classic learning and Greco-Roman beliefs were reintroduced. Italian art in particular encountered a major change in which new Renaissance ideas were skillfully demonstrated and incorporated. In artists’ work, humansRead MoreRenaissance Essay920 Words   |  4 PagesThe Renaissance was an era of change in human thought. It was characterized by a new philosophy, which included the rise of humanism, individualism, and secularism. Writers and artists began to focus on the individual man and his potential. The Renaissance movement began in the Italian ci ty-states, especially Florence, and spread northward toward the rest of Europe. The Renaissance was the rebirth of new ideas in all aspects of life such as: science, technology, classical art, and education. Read MoreRenaissance and Political System1193 Words   |  5 PagesRenaissance and Political Institutions Name: Instructor’s Name: Class: Date: Introduction Renaissance is a French term meaning rebirth or revival. Renaissance period in the history of Europe starts from the beginning of 15th century to the end of 16th century. The Renaissance manifested the transitional phase from the medieval ages to the modern era. It was a time of social and cultural changes in Europe. It is believed to be the beginning of the modern world and hence the new phase of the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Brand Equity Free Essays

string(271) " researchers have surfaced with claims to proprietary techniques, but my impression is that, in fact, many of us are doing largely the same thing because, like the automobile or the transistor, timely discoveries tend to get made in more than one place at the same time\." And, of course, by stating the obvious corollary: that you can squander your hard-earned equity by using it to subsidize misconceptions. Several years ago, Bozo;Allen Hamilton* conducted a survey of companies which have had varying degrees of success in new product Introduction, In order to arrive at an understanding of what we called â€Å"best practices† that is, what differentiated the companies which succeeded more often than others in the new products development process. To talk about the results would require more than the time I have here, but I’d Like to begin this discussion by sharing at least one useful point with you. We will write a custom essay sample on Brand Equity or any similar topic only for you Order Now Success in new product introduction is increasingly associated with the expenditures of money earlier in the development process. And, although there are many ways to spend that money, one of the most obvious is on a more deliberate examination of brand -what we might call â€Å"brand testing† as a preface to â€Å"new product testing. † * National Analysts was a division of Bozo;Allen Hamilton for 22 years, until April 1, 1992 when it became an independent business entity. 2 I plan to spend most of the time allotted me today in talking about research techniques that minimize risk in this sort of brand research enterprise. But before I o, I need to Join the swelling ranks of marketing lexicographers who define terms like brand and brand equity. I don’t propose any provocative definitions. When I speak of brand, I am talking here about the set of images and associations linked to a commercial identity which: ; Distinguish it from others ; Create specific consumer expect- The common denominator is, of course, goodwill, but it’s hard to imagine an algorithm that successfully models and values all those aspects of equity in dollar terms, since the relationships are complex and the predictor variables are sometimes crude. Brand valuation per SE is a concept more interesting to those who aim to sell or acquire brands than to those who seek to lever them, so I will generally confine my remarks to the latter by talking about the role of disciplined thinking and research in successful brand extensions. Actions and ; Promote some behavioral orientation (I. E. , to buy or avoid) When I use the term â€Å"brand equity’ one I personally like because it’s very expressive, even though imprecise I am referring to the stored value built up in a advantage. What makes that value hard to quantify, especially before the fact, is that it can be realized in a variety of ways: 1. Brand Resilience: Resistance to ewe competitors in the category 2. New Product Trial: Increased consumer willingness to try new products or line extensions under that name what you might think of as â€Å"referred equity’ 3. Brand Premium: Consumer willing-news to pay a premium for your current product or a new one under that name 4. Channel Leverage: Increased or sustained access to distribution channels I think we need, first, to acknowledge that the process of conversing about brand equity has been, in many cases, a lively exchange of anecdotes among old brand warriors: â€Å"Let me tell you about the time Minute Maid launched orange soda† and How about the time Sunniest stretched to fruit candy extensions? † and so on. And like any process that builds on examples and old yarns, there is always the risk that we will be more canny in our retrospective assessment than in our predictions. We can always find a logic or a set of brand boundaries to explain either success or failure. I contend that if Jell Pudding Pops had failed, a lot of us would have said, muff see, Jell has a room temperature or shelf stable equity, and those folks at General Foods didn’t recognize that. † Now if this seems unduly cynical, I can only say in defense that we need to take mind ourselves continually that a lot of these brand ventures or adventures -can go in more than one way, depending upon how well we execute and market them. Brand heredity’ is important, of course; I’m not arguing that General Foods can necessarily put the name Maxwell ABOUT NATIONAL ANALYSTS National Analysts, Inc. Is a research and consulting organization providing marketing guidance to corporations in a range of industries and product categories. Originally established as an independent entity in 1943, National Analysts was acquired by Bozo;Allen Hamilton Inc. , the international managem ent and technology consulting rim, in 1970. In 1992, National Analysts once again became an independent, privately-owned company with a continuing focus on marketing research and strategic consulting Throughout its long history, National Analysts has addressed a wide range of business problems, earning a reputation for methodological innovation and unusual success in handling challenging and complex assignments. It is distinguished by a unique balance of research and consulting resources, and a professional staff whose methodological skills are complemented by depth of market knowledge and industry experience. House on coffee cake or that Also can come a personal deodorant. But it is possible to fail with a plausible extent-soon (like Welch Grape Jelly Donuts) and to succeed against odds with the wrong name and the right product for instance, the Honda automobile. Like certain did-eases, brand misconceptions are a function of unfortunate â€Å"genes† and some tactical errors in living, and it’s not always clear which set of factors account for the greatest proportion of the variance. I say this because I want to unburden the research community of some of the heavy responsibility they’ve shouldered in this process. We can be good advance scouts, but we can’t sweep all the mines or survey What, then, is a reasonable goal for us as marketers and researchers? Well, our primary goal should be to learn as much as we can about the way consumers view our brand competence and our brand personality or style, and then along with that, what sort of permission consumers will extend to us as we prepare to enter neighboring territories. A number of researchers have surfaced with claims to proprietary techniques, but my impression is that, in fact, many of us are doing largely the same thing because, like the automobile or the transistor, timely discoveries tend to get made in more than one place at the same time. You read "Brand Equity" in category "Papers" The analogy may be forced because, to my knowledge, no truly new research tools have yet been invented in this arena. What we are doing is recombining established techniques in more thoughtful and systematic ways. And that may be the best we can hope for, at least in the near term. One caution I’d raise about the limitations of the discipline is that because no two 3 brands are alike, no rigid formula for researching them will apply. To revive the disease metaphor, a good diagnostician decides what information he needs based on patient presentation and does not necessarily submit each patient to the same battery of tests in the same order. This is one of the things that stands between good market research and the development of a rigidly reliable brand instrument. On the other hand, there are some rules of logic and research progression that should guide our approach Step 1 in the process is typically a qualitative phase designed to help you understand your brand character and the sort of license and boundaries which the character seems to impose. These sessions tend to include a lot of ideation and projection, and, though the approach is not help management to think about its brand in new, sometimes startling ways. Step 2 is quantification of the things we have earned or the hypotheses we have formed in the qualitative phase. The yield from that two-step research process should ultimately be a few selected concepts for testing (following whatever norms or customs you feel comfortable with). I do a disservice to the complexity of the process by referring to only two steps, and I’ll try to remedy that a little later. I should probably also state the obvious point here that careful secondary analysis must be carried out in con-Junction with the research, and that, at any point along the way, it is legitimate to use that analysis as a basis for narrowing the field of intendeds (prod-cuts or categories) which you subject to market research. Let’s talk then about your research goals -what must you attempt to learn about the character of your brand? 4 Brand character tends to involve two different elements brand competence and brand personality and you need to examine both in order to understand the raw material at your disposal. If your brand is Coke or Aquatic circa 1980, I think there’s very little question about what your competence is, or was. On the other hand, if you have what I like to call a â€Å"horizontal† brand, like Heinz, that has already extended laterally in a variety of efferent categories, it may not be easy to get a firm grasp of how consumers define your competence. Is it condiments? Is it barbeques? Is it piquancy? And so on. The more diffuse the brand, the more difficult it can be to identify the common denominator. Unless you have a brand that is literally defined by a single product -what Deed Dauber has referred to as brand prototypically it’s wise to be sure you you have, since it tends to define your opportunities. The other important element of your brand character that needs careful examination is personality or style. A good friend of mine and a master of creative brand hinging, Ron Mogul, likes to describe it as the way your brand â€Å"walks, talks and dresses† and I think that’s a nice way to put it. IBM is sober, serious, responsible, masculine, smart but rigid. Jell is childlike and playful, enthusiastic and fun, but not reckless. It doesn’t matter where these images come from. They can arise from your product design, your technology, your packaging, your sales reps, your ads, your spokesmen, your target audience, your product applications. But they’re as real and as liberating or delimiting as your own personalities. Just as people are generally made uncomfortable when rinds or relatives behave out-abstracter, are consumers made uncomfortable by a brand that behaves in surprising and inconsistent ways. This kind of information has both strategic and tactical implications since it tells you where you can legitimately extend, as well as the style to which your customers have grown accustomed. Brands that enter extension categories with competence but the wrong style may not succeed unless they create a new brand or supporting identity to bridge the image gap. Jell cannot, I submit, do a true gourmet mousse, even though the technical capability is there to support it. Sober, button-down, adult IBM imputing toys unless it took pains to spawn an intermediating brand identity. It’s important to remember that whether we speak of brand competence dimensions or brand style, we are generally not talking only about the kinds of product performance attributes that companies normally think of when they think of brand image tracking for example, â€Å"good-tasting,† â€Å"creamy texture,† etc. One of the big leaps for everyone involved in brand extension is learning to separate the name on the package from the thing inside it long enough, at least, to help you think about what the brand could mean when you put it on another substance entirely. If you were attempting to track the image of Raga Pasta Sauce, for example, you would consider recipe dimensions: Rich Tomato-eye Thick Sweet Properly spiced Has fresh ingredients, etc. If, on the other hand, you wanted to learn more about the character of the Raga brand, you’d probably focus more may not recognize or which they may not truly feel for months or years. Unfortunately, the issue, and the data, both get muddier as the chasm between your present location and your target narrows. Indeed, there comes a point where the only valid answer is â€Å"It depends. † It depends entirely on execution in the new category ND continued vigilance at home base. For all my misgivings about the question, I think we’re obligated to ask it in some way, I. E. : â€Å"Would a line of ‘X’ products by company, less, or have no effect? † And maybe, in time, we will have some reasonably sensitive norms to help us make solid use of the answers. But, if we do ask questions like that, I think we should acknowledge, going in, that this question is only a dim light in a foggy channel, not sensitive radar. In my experience with studies of this kind, one of the overwhelming challenges and this probably applies to all complex market research, by the way is creating ND managing expectations. These studies, when properly done, are expensive, and they are as unsettling as therapy. It’s the point where corporations meet themselves face-to-face, and sometimes there are 9 revelations, pleasant or not. There is also the risk that people will expect a program like this to yield a set of finished product concepts, and I think most of us here know that this sort of process is going to produce only a mission statement, not a blueprint. Earlier today, someone mentioned that his brand research experiences had involved him primarily with management, and that only now was he interacting more closely tit the market research department. That has not been my own experience. On the contrary, I believe that some of these projects flounder or are underfeed precisely because senior management is shielded or disengaged from the process. My final word of counsel, therefore, is that researchers and brand managers do what they can to ensure that the findings bubble up as high in the organization as possible. This process of â€Å"self-discovery,† which brand equity research tends to involve, is one that should command unusually close company. The ultimate brand manager is, after all, the CEO, and it’s that individual how’s ultimately responsible to the shareholders for a misstep under the family name. 8 transcendent attributes that incorporate personality or style as well as broad competence. Authentically Italian A tomato expert Pioneering Fancy Sophisticated Contemporary You’d be asking: Is Raga a brand that wears Jeans or dresses? Is this brand more like Mama Leone or Angelica Huston? By the way, if you look closely you’ll notice that there isn’t always a clear distinction between â€Å"competence† and â€Å"style† and, of course, there needn’t be. What’s important is that we capture the brand’s (confirmedness) area of expertise and the manner n which the brand delivers it. Fred Astaire and Nurture were both great dancers! We try to elicit personality dimensions with projective techniques, and those techniques tend to work quite well, so long as you have a tolerance for poetry and improvisation. Since the sort of work we do in these sessions requires a fair degree of abstraction, we like to screen for people who seem comfortable with projective exercises and all they imply. The pre-gumption is that people with a flair for metaphor and flexible thinking look at products much the way others do -but they approach our market research knowledge and a degree of â€Å"irrationality’ How to cite Brand Equity, Papers Brand Equity Free Essays Why recently ads have used old Hindi songs in place of jingles? SWITCH on the telly and chances are that you will catch an old Hindi number. Now, they could either be from the numerous music channels playing retro numbers or songs running on television commercials . And with so many commercial breaks, one sees more Hindi songs as jingles for TVCs than the original song itself. We will write a custom essay sample on Brand Equity or any similar topic only for you Order Now So from ‘Pehli Tareek’ for Cadbury to ‘Hum jab honge’ for SBI Life to ‘I love you’ for Nestle Kit Kat, the list just goes on and on. It of course warms the cockles of the generation that’s grown up with the songs but it also gets the gen next confused — for some think it’s an original score. So these touched up, remixed hindi numbers — do they make the cut or are they just an easy substitute to creating an original jingle? On the use of a popular number to sell life insurance, Chandramohan Mehra, VP – branding and communication, SBI Life says the idea was to keep the tone consistent with the previous films. â€Å"The essence of romance is stronger when we used an old Hindi song. He explains that there is a cycle that jingles follow: â€Å"It’s basically about cutting through the clutter. The cacophony that is around with remixed sounds is easily cut through when you have an old song. Probably, later on, when this becomes oft-used , someone will come out with an original jingle. † So when an old song is pitted against a jingle, which works better? â€Å"A lot of ol d songs were written to specific situations which sometimes come in handy like in the case of ‘Pehli Tareekh’ for Cadbury Dairy Milk. Riding on the popularity of an old song can be advantageous only as far as getting attention. Thereafter it is solely dependent on how well it gels with the film and the idea† , says Abhijit Avasthi, NCD, Ogilvy. But take the example of TVS Scooty Pep ad that has a score from a Raj Kapoor movie. Given that the Scooty brand is specifically targeted at an audience who might’ve never heard these songs, how do the marketers justify their use of an old song? S Srinivas, head – scooters division, TVS Motors says music was secondary to the plot. â€Å"Here, dialogues wouldn’t work and the song itted perfectly,† he says. So in the case of a scooter, the song may have been secondary, but with an apparel brand like Raymond, the creatives insist use of a well known Hindi number is a natural part of the story and not a jingle . â€Å"The brand is particular about portrayal of very realistic scenarios which people can empathise with thus relating to the brand. So there is no question of making up anything very exaggerated where people sing originally written verse to each other as in films† , says Sangeetha N, president (west) ECD, RK Swamy BBDO — the creative agency that handles Raymond.Agreed that people singing original verse might be a bit far-fetched , but is it more cost effective to use an old number than create a jingle? â€Å"If you have a well established tune, it’s easier to build your brand on it. It’s easier to create resonance . If you have songs like this one, it provides you with a jumpstart and you can maximize your investments† , says Mehra. Srinivas of TVS disagrees. He contends that music or jingles does help build a brand, but popular tunes have a limited shelf life. â€Å"This can’t be your strategy all the time† , he says. Sangeetha of RK Swamy BBDO states that using old Hindi songs costs just as much. â€Å"We have to locate the right song, pay the royalties and do a massive sound touch-up job for modern day airing† , she explains. Thus the jury’s out on whether ads with old numbers help break the clutter or not, but going by the number of commercials using them, they sure are giving retro music a fresh breath of life.SOURCE: http://economictimes. indiatimes. com/features/brand-equity/Why-recently-ads-have-used-old-Hindi-songs-in-place-of-jingles/articleshow/6557078. cms DATE: 15th September 2010. How to cite Brand Equity, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Architectures and System of Governance †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Architectures and System of Governance. Answer: Introduction: The tsunami that had taken place in the year 2004 was a massacre for the entire world. It caused severe damage to the ecosystem, thousands lost their life and many lost their lifestyle. It is one among the natural calamities that has occurred in the history of calamities. The term seismic sea wave means a series of waves in the water bodies of the earth. The tsunami waves did not resemble the normal current waves formed under the sea. They were massive and destructive in nature. The wavelength for Tsunami was relatively longer and did not break at required positions. Thus, creating huge waves that damaged the buildings and structures located near the water bodies. It consisted of series of waves that lasting from minutes to hours. The Indian Ocean Tsunami was one of the destructive calamities that occurred in nature. According to scientists, the tsunami was not tide as they consisted series of waves that were destructive in nature. The discussion will detail the Indian Ocean Tsunami that occurred in the year 2004. It will also discuss about the impacts of Tsunami, how life were damaged, how the nature was damaged. The study will also include the measures that were taken during that time and few recommendations that must be taken to prevent such disasters to happen in future again. The Indian Ocean tsunami had taken place in the year 2004, 26th of December. The epicenter of the disaster was at the west coast of Indonesia. The mega thrust earthquake took place when the Indian plate was hit by the Burma plate. It triggered a series of devastating Tsunami along the coastal areas of the Indian Ocean. The calamity caused two, 80,000 deaths and made 14 countries severely affected by the disaster. As Indonesia was the centre for this disaster, it was affected the most followed by countries like Thailand, India and Srilanka. As per world record, this was the third largest and powerful earthquake. It has a longer duration in comparison to the other earthquakes. It had lasted for 8 to 10 minutes and vibrated the blue planet as much as 0.4 inches. The epidemic had expanded until Alaska. Scientifically the epidemic is named as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. The cause for such a disaster was the displacement of the plates due to an earthquake. The displacement happened as the earthquake lasted for a longer period, greater than 9. It occurred 30kom below the sea level and hence affected the water bodies (Griffin et al.,2013). The earthquake displaced massive water volumes of water that resulted the Tsunami. The tsunami that occurred in the shallow water regions forming large destructive waves that damaged the environment and led to thousands death. according to (Brown et al., 2015) the height of the tsunami had reached 24 meters (80 ft) while coming ashore, at some points they reached 30 meters (100ft). the stretch of the tsunami was from the east to west region. Countries like Bangladesh were not affected much as the quake proceeded slowly towards the north. The Andaman and Nicobar islands had suffered a lot due to this calamity. Indonesia was the first country that was affected. Stretching from the islands of Sumatra to regions of Aceh. The tsunami occurred after 30 minutes of the earthquake. According to (Srivastava Shaw,2015) 250000people died there and 37063 were missing. The damage was not limited to the death and missing people. The incident had left 655000 people homeless and shelter less. The maximum damage took place in the coastal regions as the destruction started from the water bodies. The incident has destroyed the coastline, damaging the habitat and ecosystem of those particular regions. In many regions, the towns and villages were destroyed killing thousands of human, animals. The residue that was left after the attack was few parts of iron roofs, few mosques left in the wetlands, few substantial structures. The Andaman and Nicobar islands was also damaged in this massacre. It caused a severe damage to the islands environment. The Andaman Island was less affected in comparison to the little Andaman and Nicobar Island. They were damaged at a huge scale. In the southern region of Andaman, the attack was extended three times the general attack. The coastlines and the low-lying areas were damaged by flooding. in southern Andaman the attack was a four wave cycle with the fourth cycle to be the most destructive and dangerous in nature. The impact so severe that it threw 4 oil tankers from the seashore. The worst affect was at the Katchall islands where 303 were confirmed dead and 4354 were missing. At Srilanka, the tsunami arrived at the eastern coast and refracted to the southern region. However the country is located far beyond the epicenter and hence they did not fell the shake. The tsunami had hit the coastline of Srilanka after almost 2 hour of the quake. It is considered that tsunami had consisted three main waves with the second wave being the strongest. A train named Sumudra Devi was derailed and overturned by the tsunami (McGilvray Gamburd, 2013). It took almost 1700 lives in the country and listed it as the one of the most destructive disaster in world history. The tsunami had also affected the Southern region of Thailand and caused severe damage to the country. The tsunami occurred to the country when it was facing high tide and thus the effect was increased. At Phuket, the western beaches were affected (Calgaro, Dominey-Howes Lloyd,2014). In India, the tsunami arrived in regions like Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu. The Southernmost region was affected after two hours. The regions of Tamil Nadu were severely damaged and few areas in Andhra Pradesh were also damaged. The villages were destroyed; the residents were swept away from the coastline. The fishing industry was damaged, the population was damaged and the lifestyle was affected very badly in these regions (Patton et al.,2015). Altogether, the massacre had caused severe damage to the countries and the countrymen. The sudden shock had drift many livess and made many homeless. According to (Srivastava Shaw, 2015) 227,898 people lost their life's and many become homeless and without any shelter. The crops, plantations, animals, aquatic life were severely damaged by this incident. The incident not only led to death but also showed its impact for few months even after the incident happened. The victims were left injured; there was no scope for treatments and aids that could be provided to them (Ontowirjo, Paris Mano, 2013). They did not have sufficient food to live neither did they have consumable water. The victims had lost their families and house and were living in government-sheltered regions. The government of other countries and unaffected regions were providing necessary things to them. The other countries had to arrange for their food and necessary requirements for living (Seng, 2013). It took months f or these victims to rebuild their courage and homely situations. It was a restart for them to live on earth, as they environment was completely destroyed by the calamity. Hence, they had to rebuild each thing required in the environment. Other countries and states to come out from this situation and restart their lifestyles supported the victims. Steps taken after the massacre: The tsunami had created a relief effort raising funds from government. The governments of the neighboring countries had sanctioned relief and rehabilitation measures for the victim countries. The World Bank and banks that are supported by the NGOs provided initial supports to the countries. They targeted to provide an urgent relief to the victims and a long term rehabilitation to the countries. They intended to create an environment friendly situation and help the victims to come out of the traumatic situation. The government of India reconstructed the damaged houses, created new habitation in safer zones, provided sustainable lifestyle for the countrymen, restored the ecology, provided better infrastructure and helped the victims with educational needs and psychological trauma. MCF had taken initiative and took the victims to a new area where they were provided with education, living motivations, help groups, protection from further damage. They committed to provide rehabilitation t o the victims and worked for the improvement of the victims. The members meet every month to discuss about the improvement and betterment in their work to help the injured and victim of Tsunami(Hentry et al., 2017). They have fund to provide treatment and ensure the welfare of these innocent lives. The neighboring countries provided food and consumable water to the affected areas by helicopter. The countries were raising funds for the victims and moved 50000 tons of food to the affected areas. They used helicopter and planes to reach the victims. There were groups formed to provide medical help to the victims. The countries like Japan, America, Kuwait provided money whereas the countries like Pakistan and China provided medical teams, rescue teams along with dogs. All the nations from worldwide had helped the countries that were affected by the disaster. It took few months for the countries to recover their trauma and come back to normal lifestyle. The primary cause of this disaster was environmental impact that caused the earth quake with a extended effect of the destructive calamity Tsunami. the incident could have been prevented if the ratio of pollution and damage to nature was limited since the early days (Lvholt et al., 2014). As the people are least concerned about the welfare of society, they do not tend to protect the society. Unfortunately, the humans residing in the society cause the damage to society. The primary reason for the earthquake was the shifting of the plates (Hutchison, 2014). The pates tend to move due to the intense heat of the earth. The heating is natural in nature, however, the rate of heat has been increased b the human activities that has resulted to such an outcome. The primary steps that can be taken to prevent these calamities are: reduction of pollution using methods to save the greenery prevention of deforestation reducing CFC eliminating products reducing pollution emitting machines use technologies that support cooling of the earth use natural resources those are renewable reduce the use of nuclear weapons that increase the heat level The people of earth to reduce such disastrous incidents to happen should follow these measures. Few other measures can be taken to face such calamities: the country can keep a stock of food grains and necessities for such mishaps There can be a special group or help age group in every country who will provide support to nations or states suffering from such incidents The governments can equipments like helicopter, ship and airplanes that will provide support to the countries suffering such problems. The country can have a weather-monitoring group who can at least find approximate chances(Anugrah et al.,2015) for the mishaps to happen and warn the country from such incidents. Thus to conclude it can be said that the primary cause for such a disaster is the earthquake that resulted to this disaster. The reason for such quakes is the heating of the earth. The Earth has heated due to excess use of rays, chemicals and environment hazardous products. However, these are also natural calamities that cannot be stopped by our own choice. Hence, few considerations has to be accepted for such calamities, along with some measures. The measures can be protection of greenery and maintenance of ecology. The use of heating chemicals and agents can be reduced to reduce the heat on Earth. At the same time people should be prepared for such natural calamities happening. They can build their habitats in higher regions to prevent such disasters to damage them at the most. They can use weather monitoring devices to assume the chances of such disasters , they can avoid living near water bodies that can damage the most in case of such disasters. However, these are natural calami ties that occur without any warning and it has to be accepted and overcome by everone. References: Anugrah, B., Meilano, I., Gunawan, E., Efendi, J. (2015). Estimation of postseismic deformation parameters from continuous GPS data in northern Sumatra after the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake.Earthquake Science,28(5-6), 347-352. Brown, B., Yuniati, W., Ahmad, R., Soulsby, I. (2015). Observations of Natural Recruitment and Human Attempts at Mangrove Rehabilitation After Seismic (Tsunami and Earthquake) Events in Simeulue Island and Singkil Lagoon, Aceh, Indonesia. InPost-Tsunami Hazard(pp. 311-327). Springer, Cham. Calgaro, E., Dominey-Howes, D., Lloyd, K. (2014). Application of the Destination Sustainability Framework to explore the drivers of vulnerability and resilience in Thailand following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami.Journal of Sustainable Tourism,22(3), 361-383. Griffin, C., Ellis, D., Beavis, S., Zoleta-Nantes, D. (2013). Coastal resources, livelihoods and the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Aceh, Indonesia.Ocean coastal management,71, 176-186. Hentry, C., Saravanan, S., Chandrasekar, N., Rayar, S. L. (2017). Post-Tsunami Damages Assessment, Relief and Rehabilitation Measures in the Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, South India.Energy and Environment Research,7(1), 48. Hutchison, E. (2014). A global politics of pity? Disaster imagery and the emotional construction of solidarity after the 2004 asian tsunami.International Political Sociology,8(1), 1-19. Lvholt, F., Setiadi, N. J., Birkmann, J., Harbitz, C. B., Bach, C., Fernando, N., ... Nadim, F. (2014). Tsunami risk reductionare we better prepared today than in 2004?.International journal of disaster risk reduction,10, 127-142. Lvholt, F., Setiadi, N. J., Birkmann, J., Harbitz, C. B., Bach, C., Fernando, N., ... Nadim, F. (2014). Tsunami risk reductionare we better prepared today than in 2004?.International journal of disaster risk reduction,10, 127-142. McGilvray, D. B., Gamburd, M. R. (Eds.). (2013).Tsunami recovery in Sri Lanka: Ethnic and regional dimensions. Routledge. Murao, O., Nakazato, H. (2013). Vulnerability functions for buildings based on damage survey data in Sri Lanka after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Ontowirjo, B., Paris, R., Mano, A. (2013). Modeling of coastal erosion and sediment deposition during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Lhok Nga, Sumatra, Indonesia.Natural hazards,65(3), 1967-1979. Patton, J. R., Goldfinger, C., Morey, A. E., Ikehara, K., Romsos, C., Stoner, J., ... Vizcaino, A. (2015). A 6600 year earthquake history in the region of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone earthquake.Geosphere,11(6), 2067-2129. Seng, D. S. C. (2013). Tsunami resilience: multi-level institutional arrangements, architectures and system of governance for disaster risk preparedness in Indonesia.Environmental science policy,29, 57-70. Srivastava, N., Shaw, R. (2015). Institutional and Legal Arrangements and Its Impacts on Urban Issues in Post Indian Ocean Tsunami. InRecovery from the Indian Ocean Tsunami(pp. 17-27). Springer, Tokyo.

Sunday, March 29, 2020

The Grandmothers Tale Essay Example

The Grandmothers Tale Essay EXTENSION ENGLISH The Grandmothers Tale Speech Fairy Tales are short stories that have been passed through cultures and generations, usually adapting to fit the social restrictions and morals of the time. The Grandmothers Tale, which most of us would recognize as Charles Perrault’s adaptation, Little Red Riding Hood, has been passed through different cultures, countries and many variations of the text are prevalent in different societies around the world. The Grandmother’s Tale tells of how a young girl, who is nameless, ventures through the woods to visit her sick grandmother. On the way she meets a wolf, and because of her naivety, tells him where she is heading. The wolf beats her there, eats the grandmother and when the girl arrives, the wolf simulates the grandmother’s voice in order to eat the girl too. The girl how-ever escapes and the wolf ends up getting dropped in the river by laundresses and drowns. Because the hero of the story, the young girl is kept nameless throughout various variations of the text, she is then seen as a representative of all children who read the text, making her a role model for those children. We will write a custom essay sample on The Grandmothers Tale specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Grandmothers Tale specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Grandmothers Tale specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer By giving her an identity this would no longer apply, lessening the effect that fairy tales are designed to have on children. The text has undergone a number of transformations, both simple and complex, thus leading to a variety of versions. By analyzing the text and applying reading practices, approaches and other methods of deconstruction, namely those of Joseph Campbell’s hero’s cycle and Vladimir Propp’s deconstruction of folk tales, it is possible to create a complex transformation of the text. Vladimir Propp and Joseph Campbell both theorized the idea that in divulging into a fairytale text analytically, one can establish certain analyzable elements which are present in a majority of folk tales in unvarying order. Propp studies fairytales by examining their most basic plot components. He devised a list of 31 generic functions, proposing that they covered all of the plot components from which fairy tales were constructed. Joseph Campbell however, discovered one standard plot that has been repeated throughout mythology and fairytale genre. The invited reading of this text is not dissimilar to Bruno Betlelheim’s theory that â€Å"Children know that there are monsters – they need to know that they can be defeated. † The young girl is able to subvert the power relationship between herself and the wolf by using her wits to outsmart him, becoming the heroine of the story and saving herself rather than being passive and becoming a victim. The ideal reading is to not challenge the status quo, thus agreeing with the ideologies presented in the text. By doing so, the reader would be then deemed by Eco to be what he theorized as the ‘Model reader’. The Model reader responds, comprehends, embraces and respects dominant ideologies and discourses promoted in the text. Though the model reader is not born with that socio-cultural understanding, it is imbedded into varying aspects of their culture, like fairy tales, thus molding them into the â€Å"Model reader†. By using characters such as Ogres, witches and, in the case of the grandmother’s tale, a wolf, to portray evil, children are able to easily distinguish between the good and bad. One reason for this is because of the depiction of such characters in folk tales. Usually the good characters are represented as being beautiful, gold hearted beings while the evil are ugly animalistic creatures that are rarely human. The purpose of many fairy tales is to support the status quo. By repeating this practice fairy tales are able to convey the idea that society is portrayed how it should and that it should not be challenged or questioned. They are inherently conservative and portray the dominant ideologies of the time and the society of which they support. They are written by those in power in order to position us in favor of the already powerful. When analyzing The Grandmother’s Tale, it is necessary to have considered the cultural understandings of the time period of which it was written and to understand the discourses which shape that particular society. A discourse is not just a way of speaking or writing, but the whole ‘mental set’ and ideology which encloses the thinking of all members of a given society. That is why transformations of the text can occur. French Philosopher, Michel Foucault is post-modernist in his approach to defining power. He theorized that â€Å"Power works through language by presenting a certain type of knowledge as if it were reality or truth. The discourses of power which exist in society, are those promoted in fairytales. These are people who are wealthy, mainly those born into wealth, and the biologically powerful, men. In The Grandmother’s Tale, the power is, to my cultural understanding, decentralized, by subverting the power relationship to favor the young girl, though in the transformation, Little Red Riding Hood, the power is attributed to the patriarchal male. By referring to Joseph Campbell’s Hero cycle and Vladimir Propp’s analysis of folk tales, the characters can be categorized by the roles of which they play. The heroine of the story is the young girl; she would be labeled as the hero. This operates under a socially acceptable discourse, that of femininity and youth. She is portrayed as genuinely light hearted, a discursive trait that is generally attributed to the hero of the tale. The wolf is the villain of the tale, portraying evil, dishonesty and a cunning manipulative personality. In Norse mythology, Fenrir is a wolf that is bound by the gods, though destined to grow and kill Odin, only to be slain by Odin’s son . Anthropomorphism is the attribution of uniquely human characteristics to nonhuman beings, inanimate objects, or natural or supernatural phenomena. This is something that is repeated in many fairy tales, though in most cases the object or animal is portrayed as something positive. Examples such as the little bird or the bull, existing in transformation of the Cinderella text are seen as the agents of transformation, helping the unrecognized hero, as labeled by Joseph Campbell, to break free of the restraints which hold the hero back from transformation. Readers readily embrace the negative connotations attributed with wolfs, not just because of representations in Norse mythology and other tales, legends and stories, but also because of the biological factors. The wolf is an ice age survivor, stalking its prey in packs. They hunt in packs and for many years have deprived farmers of their livestock, leading to starvation. By attributing human traits to the wolf, a creature that is feared in societies around the world and often portrayed as evil, the children reading, or listening to the text are subconsciously connecting those fearful manipulative traits seen in humans, with evil. This particular representation has supported society’s constraints and still exists and operates in societies of today. Though the wolf is portrayed negatively, it can still be seen as the agent of transformation. In the tale, the girl is naive and disorientated to start with, though with the second encounter of the wolf the girl realizes that he is negative, taking it upon her self to flee. The wolf or villain is then killed, leaving the reader with a sense of satisfaction, knowing that the good character of the story prevailed. The wolf is not human so the power discourse is shifted then by that fact and the fact that he is evil, putting the young girl in power, making it socially acceptable for the wolf to be slain. In some variations of the text the wolf is slain in a gruesome manner yet is still seen as acceptable. By introducing the Woodcutter into an adaptation of the text, Little Red Riding Hood, the power discourse is then, in my opinion, centralized, due to the society of which I live in. In the text, the dominant discourses operating are that of gender. A middle aged working man is now seen to be the hero of the story, subverting the power relationship away from the young girl. He rescues the two women from the wolf, portraying the women as passive and dependant. Both of these ideals are crucial in understanding both texts and without them the text would convey little meaning. This naturalizes the dominant discourses operating in the society of when the text was written. Post-Structuralism suggests that the reader will attribute their own attitudes, values and beliefs to a text whilst reading it. They make links based on the social context of which they exist and operate and expect or predict certain outcomes and events, such as good prevailing over evil, thus leading to a â€Å"happy ending† (do finger quote marks!!!!! ). A happy ending is normally constituted by the dominant discourse that represents the good, generally the heroes, prevailing, while the negativity of the story or the villain is conquered. In literary theory structuralism is a reading approach that observes narrative material, semiotic codes being just one aspect. Structuralism emerged fully in the 1950’s and 1960’s though it can be traced back to the works of Ferdinand de Saussure; a Swiss Linguist who was one of the key figures in the development of modern approaches to the study of language between 1857 and 1913. By analyzing The Grandmother’s Tale using the semiotic code, there are underlying actions, discourses and ideologies prevalent in the text, as well as symbolic meanings which lead the reader to gain inter-textual references and recognize the text as a variation of a text that they have read. Examples of this are such things as the introduction of the colour red that is used in Little Red Riding Hood, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm’s version Little Red Cap, an Austrian version called Little Red Hat and it is also seen in other variations of the story. Alfred DuPont Chandler, Jr. was a professor of business history at Harvard Business School, who wrote extensively about the scale and the management structures of modern corporations. He states â€Å"A sign is a meaningful unit which is interpreted as standing for something other than itself†. The tale and its variations follow the same basic structure and the discourses under which the characters operate tend to be similar in each of the texts. By analyzing the text and subverting discourses and changing actions and traits of the characters, a complex transformation of the text can be produced. This text is generally unrecognizable and readers are unable to connect it to the original text until methods of deconstruction are applied. An example of this is the movie Pretty Woman, a complex transformation of the Cinderella fairy tale. The discourses under which the characters operate have been subverted; therefore the viewer doesn’t recognize the text though they anticipate the actions and behavior of the characters as well as the ending because they are subconsciously making links to Cinderella and similar fairy tales without realization of this. To create a complex transformation of The Grandmother’s Tale, one must subvert ideologies and discourses so that they can be questioned and must stray from the archetypal characters. When deconstructing the transformed version of The Grandmother’s Tale it is obvious that the same basic line of events and structure is still used. It is the discursive shifts and altered semiotics that make the text unrecognizable. The ideal young girl of the story is that of a kind hearted innocent being. By representing her as a young prostitute who has little respect for men, she is no longer the epitome of all that is good and pure, formulating many negative ideologies so that the reader then has to question the text. This then allows a transformation of which challenges cultural expectations and social understandings and assumptions that are crucial to the base text. The inversion of the â€Å"wolf† is another aspect of the transformed text that makes it harder to link it to the original base text. Zoopomorphisation, opposed to anthropomorphism, is giving the human character animal features. I have then subverted those characteristics so that the character is completely different from what the reader expects. The wolf character in The Grandmother’s Tale represents evil, so it would be natural to have the human character whose physical attributes are wolf like to also be evil. There are examples of this in many fictional stories and movies with the use of the â€Å"werewolf† character. However, in the transformed version of The Grandmother’s Tale, Fenrir the male client of the subverted ideal girl who is a prostitute is inverted behaviorally by loving and trying to protect the prostitute. His intentions are pure and selfless, unlike those of the wolf in the base texts. Another discursive shift present in the transformed text is that of the grandmother figure from the base text. The Grandmother’s Tale and Little Red Riding Hood both consist of a sick grandmother, who is needy of basic necessities like milk and bread. The young girl in both of those tales then takes those necessities to the ill grandmother. By inverting the grandmothers gender and altering the age and discourse under which the character operates, an unrecognizable character is formed. When deconstructed, the pimp in the transformed text is actually the subverted grandmother from the base text. He too is ill, though in the text it states what illness he has, putting him in a position where he is relying on his prostitute to bring him money to live on. His behavior however is not kind, but manipulative and selfish, shifting away from the discursive traits of the original character. The pimp is represented as being physically attractive opposed to being physically animalistic and ugly, a trait which generally applies to the villains of the text. Take for example the step mother or step sisters in Cinderella. Those three characters are all represented as being selfish and ugly and are seen to be the villains. The prostitute respects him, something that a lot of us would find hard to comprehend due to the society of which we operate and the ideologies which enclose our thinking. In the original text, the hero’s helpers are the laundresses. By inverting their gender and altering the motive behind killing the wolf character, they are no longer perceived as the hero’s helpers. Though this shift has occurred, the same line of events and the same outcomes are achieved. The reason for these discursive shifts is to subvert the dominant patterns seen in The Grandmother’s Tale and its variations, thus positioning the reader to question ideologies and discourses used in the transformed text. The semiotics in the transformed text are those seen in the original text, though slightly altered. The colour red that has been introduced to variations of The Grandmother’s Tale is used throughout the transformed version, though in different ways conveying different ideologies and meanings. The tattoo on the young prostitute’s leg is an important symbol, ttributing several different meanings to the text. There is extensive symbolism endorsed with the colour red, some positive and some negative. Red is evidently the first colour perceived by man, and a common belief is that the colour red held protective powers against evil influence. Some negative connotations of the colour can be dated back to Israelites in biblical times who painted their do orframes in red blood to scare demons. In ancient Egypt red was the colour of the desert and that of the destructive god Seth. Red is the most vivid symbol in the text, though it was not originally used in The Grandmother’s Tale and was thought to be introduced by Perrault. Psychoanalytic critics have divulged into analyzing the meaning of the colour as it traditionally symbolizes things that would not normally be attributed with a small child. Sin and blood to passion and sexuality, there are many sexual undertones attributed with the colour red. Though the colour is suggestive of sexual connotations, it was most likely introduced by Perrault to try and provoke the idea of caution, another meaning often associated with the colour red. It is obvious that the semiotics present in a text will change over time due to extensive perceptions of signs and symbols that are attributed with certain cultural beliefs. The reason I chose to use a Chinese dragon as the symbol of her tattoo is because of the dominant religions prevalent in my cultural context. By using a red dragon, I am able to subvert the Judeo Christian ideologies and discourses surrounding innocence and the belief in one god. The dominant meaning derived from the tattoo and its colour is that it is very provocative and sexually suggestive, emphasized a lot by the fact that it is on her upper thigh. When analyzed and applied to Chinese mythology, it suggests a lot of other connotations, differing greatly to the negative connotations assumed surrounding Judeo Christian ideologies. The Chinese dragon is one of the most important mythical creatures in Chinese mythology. The Chinese dragon is considered to be the most powerful and divine creature and is believed to be the controller of all waters. The dragon symbolised great power and was very supportive of heroes and gods. This subverts religious beliefs present in the text as there has been extensive interaction between chinese mythology and religion. The chinese dragon is also ultimately symbolic of good fortune. This transformation oversteps boundries layed down by society, and does not make sense within the traditional fairy tale genre. I have chosen to subvert various discourses in order to display this, though I kept the same basic structure throughout the whole text. The original consists of a young girl getting followed by a wolf, who is going to get taken away from her grandmother, though because of this the wolf gets killed. The transformed text is ultimately the same, though due to the amount of discursive shifts this is unrecognizalbe at first. Through reproductions of the text, the most common dominant discourses present are that of gender, clearly reflecting the way society has been and still is being constructed to accept the patriachal hierachy of male dominance. It is evident that fairy tales have underlying intentions of societal constraint and socially acceptable conformity, thus the repiticouse productions of fairy tales seem to have the same underlying message, of which is society is portrayed how it should and that it should not be challenged or questioned. Thank-you

Saturday, March 7, 2020

The El Nino Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction

The El Nino Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction Often blamed for any and all out-of-the ordinary weather, El Nià ±o is a naturally occurring climate event  and the warm phase of the El Nià ±o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) during which sea surface temperatures in the eastern and equatorial Pacific Ocean are warmer than average. How much warmer? An increase of 0.5 C or more in average sea surface temperatures lasting 3 months in a row, suggest the onset of an El Nià ±o episode.   Meaning of the Name El Nià ±o means the boy, or male child, in Spanish and refers to Jesus, the Christ Child. It comes from South American sailors, who in the 1600s, observed the warming conditions off the Peruvian coast at Christmastime and named them after the Christ Child. El Nio Happens El Nià ±o conditions are caused by a weakening of the trade winds. Under normal circumstances, the trades drive surface waters towards the west; but when these die down, they allow the warmer waters of the western Pacific to seep eastward toward the Americas. Frequency, Length, and Strength of Episodes A major El Nià ±o event generally occurs every 3 to 7 years, and lasts for up to several months at a time. If El Nià ±o conditions will appear, these should begin to form sometime in the late summer, between June and August. Once they arrive, conditions typically reach peak strength from December to April, then subside from May to July of the following year. Events are categorized as either neutral, weak, moderate, or strong. The strongest El Nià ±o episodes occurred in 1997-1998 and 2015-2016. To date, the 1990-1995 episode is the longest-lasting on record. What El NioMeans For Your Weather Weve mentioned that El Nià ±o  is an ocean-atmosphere climate event, but how do warmer-than-average waters in the far-off tropical Pacific Ocean affect weather? Well, these warmer waters warm up the atmosphere above it. This leads to more rising air and convection.  This excess heating intensifies the Hadley circulation, which in turn, disrupts circulation patterns around the globe, including things like the position of the jet stream.   In this way, El Nià ±o  triggers a departure from our normal weather and rainfall patterns  including: Wetter-than-normal conditions along coastal Ecuador, northwestern Peru, southern Brazil, central Argentina, and equatorial eastern Africa (during the months of December, January, February); and over the inter-mountainous U.S. and central Chile (June, July, August). Drier-than-normal conditions over northern South America, Central America, and southern Africa (December, January, February); and over eastern Australia, Indonesia, and the Philippines (June, July, August). Warmer-than-normal conditions in southeast Asia, southeast Africa, Japan, southern Alaska, and west/central Canada, SE Brazil, and SE Australia (December, January, February); and along South Americas west coast, and again SE Brazil (June, July, August). Cooler-than-normal conditions along the U.S. Gulf coast (December, January, February). Current El NioForecast As of Fall 2016, El Nià ±o is has weakened and ended and a La Nià ±a Watch  is now in effect. (This simply means that the ocean-atmosphere conditions look favorable for La Nià ±a to develop.)   To learn more about La Nià ±a (cooling of the ocean surface in the central and eastern tropical Pacific) read What is La Nià ±a.

Thursday, February 20, 2020

The discriminatory treatment undergone by the blacks under the Research Paper

The discriminatory treatment undergone by the blacks under the criminal laws of United States - Research Paper Example From this research it is clear that controversial issues related to identity do not always result in wars and other violent forms in the context of handling the particular social issue. The most important impact of social issues falls on people’s lives and also their relations and interactions with others. Social issues can influence various economic and cultural aspects related to lives of people and generate discrimination which challenges the idea of equality in more than one respect. Thus it is related to identity. Social issues are those issues which create significant impacts on human lives and also affect their lifestyles and processes of interactions and building up social, economic, and cultural relations with others. Social issues often increase the intensity of people to create controversy related to any social issue and hence to create greater societal and cultural problem in the society where these people live in. There are various social issues which are creating significant impacts on human lives in modern times, such as suicide, public nudity, gun rights, drug laws, gay marriage, capital punishment etc. These social issues are the most current issues in every life of developed countries which are affecting people’s lives to great extent. The current social issue related to the fact that there is growing discrimination against the black communities living in the country in terms of application of criminal laws on people belonging to black communities.... In the country people belonging to black communities, such as African and African-American communities are facing discriminations from government officials and various legal systems of the country. In order to address social problems in an effective proper understanding of the causes of various behavioral patterns of human beings are very much important. This is because these causes are responsible for creation of greater social problems. Again these different human behaviors depend on various circumstances which people face in their everyday lifestyles (Kizza, 92). These circumstances create human motivations in regard to deal with those particular circumstances. The most important principle of social theory is that the all (mainly different types of) human behavior is finally motivated by the necessity to maintain the identity of the person under consideration. In this context human behaviors can be defined as the process of continuous effort which is related to the maintainace or enhancement of that particular identity (Bracher, 23-24). In simple terms identity can be defined as the sense of the person regarding who is he or she. In technical sense identity can be defined as â€Å"a sense of psychosocial well-being† (Bracher, 24). In this context the notion of social identity is related to the fact that it relates the sense of personal identity of a person with various social conditions and circumstances. Creation of this social identity is very much important in modern times, and also very much visible in American societies (Bracher, 24-25). This necessity to establish a sense of identity is the main concern to a person and this necessity drives the person to become motivated to behave in according manners. In the context of this paper is motivation and